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Predicate of the conclusion
The Subject of the conclusion
shared by two premises; NOT in conclusion
those that contain the major & m\inor terms
the order of letter names (major then minor then concluson)
determined by location of two middle t
UNCONDTIONALLY Boolean valid forms:
1. AAA, EAE, AII, EIO
2. EAE, AEE, EIO, AOO
3. IAI, AII, OAO, EIO
4. EIO, AEE, EIO
1. AAI, EAO
2. EAO, AEO
3. AAI, EAO
4. EAO, AEO, AAI
Five Boolean fallacies (list)
- 1. Undistributed middle
- 2. Illicit Major/Minor
- 3. Exclusive premises
- 4. Draw affirmative conclusion from negative premise..
- 5. Existential fallacy
1. Undistributed Middle Fallacy
- "The middle term must be distributed AT LEAST ONCE"
- Universals: Subj is distributed (US)
- Negatives: Pred is distributed (NP)
2. Illicit Major/Minor Fallacy
IF a term is distributed in conclusion, that same term must then be distributed in a premise.
--> examine the conclusion first; if there is no distribution in conclusion then rule can't be violated
3. Exclusive premises
Two negative premises are NOT allowed.
4. Drawing affirmative conclusion from Negative premise.
- Two options:
- 1. A negative premise requires a negative conclusion.
2. IF the conclusion is negative, there MUST be ONE negative premise.
5. Existential Fallacy
IF both premises are universal, the conclusion CANT be particular.
Standard Form categorical propositons:
I --what is the copula?
O --what is the quantifier?
- A: All S are P
- E: No S are P
- I: Some S are P
- O: Some S are not P
Quality of Categorical Propositions:
Affirmative vs Negative aspect; whether it affirms or denies class membership.
- --> Negative:
- 1. No S are P.
- 2. Some S are NOT P.
- --> Affirmative:
- 1. All S are P.
- 2. Some S are P.
Quantity of Categorical Propositions:
Either universal or particular; Focus on the QUANTIFIER: All, No, or Some
--> Universal: makes a claim about EVERY member; Ex: All or No S are P.
--> Particular: Makes a claim about SOME member; Ex: Some S are or are not P.
Attribute of terms; a distributed term occurs if a proposition makes a claim about every member of the class of either S or P.
- JUST KNOW:
- --> Universals: S is always distributed (U.S)
- --> Negatives: P is always distributed (N.P)
Aristotelian vs. Boolean philosophy:
Aristotelian: Open to existence
Boolean: doesn't recognize their existence.
SWITCH S & P (ONLY)
- **ONLY E&I statements are logically equivalent when convertedCONVERSION
**NOTE: ALL A,E,I,O are logically equivalent.
- 1. Change Quality ONLY (not quantity); affirmative & Negative
- 2. Replace the PREDICATE with it's term complement
- --> "term complement": adding "non" in front of the prefix.
- All A are B => No A are non-B
- Some A are B => Some A are not non-B
- 1. Switch the S & P.
- 2. Replace S &P with their term-complements.
**NOTE: ONLY works for A&O statements; have identical truth values when switched.
- All A are B => All non-B are non-A