PSY 339 Ch 10 & 11

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PSY 339 Ch 10 & 11
2013-06-03 16:06:28
Social Cultural Psychology

Ch 10 & 11
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  1. Personality
    • Set of enduring behavioral and cognitive characteristics, traits, or predispositions that contribute to differences among individuals
    • Quality or collection of qualities which makes a person a distinctive individual
    • Relatively stable across time and consistent across context, situations, and interactions
    • Universal 
    • Culture specific
  2. National character
    perception that each culture has a modal personality type, and that most persons in that culture share aspects of it
  3. Psychological Anthropology-Personality
    • view of personality as culturally specific, formed by the unique forces each culture deals with in its milieu.
    • attributes more importance to the learning of psychological mechanisms and personality in the environment through cultural practices than to biological and evolutionary factors.
  4. Trait
    • characteristic or quality distinguishing a person.
    • Approach views personality as something discrete and separate from culture, and as a dependent variable in research; thus the culture is used as the independent variable
  5. Indigenous personalities
    constellations of personality traits found only in a specific culture
  6. Cultural psychology approach-Personality
    • Personality and culture are mutually constituted system in which each creates and maintains the other
    • Personality is influenced by culture, and lots of personalities working together also influence culture. It is a bidirectional process
  7. Measuring personality across cultures
    • To validate personality measures cross-culturally requires psychometric evidence from all cultures in which the test is to be used. In the strictest sense, therefore, researchers interested in cross-cultural studies on personality should select instruments that have been demonstrated to have acceptable psychometric properties,
    • i.e. test-retest reliability, construct validity, etc.
  8. Five Factor Model (FFM)
    • Conceptual model built around five distinct and basic personality dimensions that appear to be universal for all humans
    • Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism (OCEAN)
    • Cross-cultural research on validity of FFM support claims of universality
    • Researchers use the NEO-PI-R inventory
  9. Openness Subtraits
    Fantasy, Aesthetics, Feelings, Actions, Ideas, Values
  10. Conscientiousness Subtraits
    Competence, order, dutifulness, achievement striving, self-discipline, deliberation
  11. Extroversion Subtraits
    Warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeking, positive emotions
  12. Agreeableness
    Trust, Straightforwardness, Altruism, Compliance, modesty, tender-mindedness
  13. Neuroticism
    Anxiety, anger hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness,  vulnerability,
  14. Robert McCrae and Paul Costa’s 51 cultures study-FFM
    • Americans, New Zealanders, and Australians are high on Extraversion and in the middle for Neuroticism
    • Same five-factor model emerged when asked to rate someone they know well (thus eliminating social desirable responding)
  15. Perceptions of National Character/Aggregate Personality traits.
    • Perceptions of national character not correlated with actual, aggregate personality levels
    • National characters may be unfounded stereotypes of personalities, but exist to maintain national identity
  16. Five Factor Theory (FFT)
    • Theory about source of five factor traits
    • Core Components-
    • Basic Tendencies: characteristic ways of responding to the environment in a particular way. They are based on biology. 
    • Characteristic adaptations: habits, attitudes, skills, roles, and relationships, which are culturally influenced.
    • Self Concept: Basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations combine to produce the unique expression of the personality traits. They also combine to produce the SELF CONCEPT, all of which influences BEHAVIOR
  17. Evolutionary Approach: Personality
    • universality in both human interests and of the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying trait variation
    • Traits in FFM are stable variations in systems that serve critical adaptive functions
    • Ex. conscientiousness may help individuals to monitor the environment for dangers and impending punishments, and to persevere in tasks that are not particularly rewarding.
  18. Interpersonal relatedness
    • Fanny Cheung and colleagues developed what they initially considered an indigenous scale designed to measure personality in china that included the following traits: 
    • -Harmony
    • -Relationship Orientation
    • -Modernization, Thrift v. Extravagance
    • -Defensiveness (Ah-Q)
    • -Face (impression management)

    Collectively, these traits fall under Interpersonal Relatedness.
  19. Filipino personality structure
    • Church et al. (1997; 1998) found that Filipino personality structure included seven traits, not five. 
    • The Indigenous factors: Social Curiosity, Risk  taking, Religiosity 
    • Traits where important to predict smoking, drinking, gambling, praying, tolerance of homosexuality, and tolerance of premarital and extramarital relations
  20. Dominance
    • People differ in their dependence on authority and hierarchical status differences among interactants
    • Hofstede, Bond, and Luk (1993) analyzed data from 1,300 individuals in Denmark and the Netherlands, and found six personality dimensions. Five of these were related to the FFM; the sixth, however, was not. The researchers labeled this “authoritarianism.” 
    • is Inherited trait among animals
  21. Internal locus of control
    • believe their behavior and relationships with others as internally controlled
    • ex. Grades are mostly dependent on how much effort you put into studying
    • In general, Americans have higher internal locus of control; non-Americans have higher external locus of control
  22. External locus of control
    • believe their behavior and relationships with others as contingent on forces outside themselves and beyond their control
    • Ex. grades were mostly dependent on luck, teacher benevolence, or ease of the tests.
  23. Direct control
    • the self acts as agent, and feelings of autonomy and efficacy arise as a result, especially when other people KNOW the self is the agent in control.
    • more prevalent in cultures that value autonomy and independence
  24. Indirect Control
    • one’s agency is hidden or downplayed; people pretend they are not acting as an agent even though in reality they are doing so. In this style, the person does NOT want other people to know they are in control.
    • more prevalent in cultures that value maintenance of interpersonal harmony
  25. Proxy control
    • control by someone else for the benefit of oneself.
    • I.E. letting a union boss negotiate a contract.
    • more prevalent in cultures that value maintenance of interpersonal harmony
  26. Collective control
    • one attempts to control the environment as a member of a group, and the group serves as the agent of control.
    • more prevalent in cultures that value maintenance of interpersonal harmony
  27. Self-determination theory
    • Deci and Ryan (1985). 
    • people from all cultures share basic  psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness but the specific ways in which these needs are met differ  according to context and culture
  28. Autonomy
    behavior experienced as willingly enacted and fully endorsed the actions in which they are engaged or the values expressed by them.
  29. African model of personality--Ubuntu
    • "I am what i am because we all are"
    • views
    • Personality as consisting of three layers, each representing a different aspect of the person: 
    • -The first layer, found at the core of the person and personality, embodies a spiritual principle
    • -The second layer involves a psychological vitality principle
    • -the third layer involves a physiological vitality principle.
    • -The body forms the outer framework that houses all these layers of the person.

    All layers are affected by family lineage and community.
  30. Japanese amae
    • Amae means sweet, and refers to the passive, childlike dependence of one person on another.
    • All Japanese relationships can be characterized by amae.
  31. Indigenous Concepts of Personality and the Cultural Psychology Perspective
    • Some aspects of personality may be universal and other aspects are culturally unique
    • Relationship between indigenous and universal aspects of personality are two sides of the same coin, not mutually exclusive
  32. Influence of culture on psychopathology
    • Cultural relativism: abnormal behaviors can only be understood in the cultural framework within which they occur
    • There are universalities in the underlying psychological mechanisms and subjective experiences of many psychological disorders; culture plays a role in behavioral manifestations of abnormal behavior
  33. Schizophrenia:World Health Organization Study
    • Universal symptoms of schizophrenia: lack of insight, auditory and verbal hallucinations, and ideas of reference (assuming one is the center of attention)
    • •Cross-cultural
    • differences in: 
    • Rate of recovery- Patients in developing countries recover faster 
    • Symptom expression-May be related to cultural differences in values associated with insight and self-awareness.
    • Criticism: Assessment tool was not culturally equivalent. Researcher bias on the part of the WHO researchers; they overlooked cultural differences.
    • the
    • WHO studies provide evidence of a universal set of core symptoms that may be
    • related to schizophrenia. Other studies, however, help to temper this interpretation by documenting specific cultural differences in the exact manifestations, experience, and diagnosis of schizophrenia in different cultural contexts.
  34. Depression-WHO Study
    • Universal symptoms of depression: loss of enjoyment, appetite, or sleep
    • However, Kleinman and Marsella argue for a cultural aspect. Individualistic cultures have patients whose symptoms are affective, collectivistic cultures have patients who’s symptoms are somatic.
  35. Somatization
    • bodily symptoms as expressions of  psychological distress.
    •  may be a universal phenomenon with culture-specific meanings and expression modes
  36. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    • No large-scale comparative cross-cultural studies have been conducted so currently cannot establish whether ADHD is universally experienced disorder
    • Some argue that it  is a cultural construct: Timimi (2004) contends that the stresses of modern Western culture (loss of extended family support, a busy and hyperactive family life) has set the stage for the emergence of ADHD and higher incidence rates in recent years.
    • ADHD Working group argued that ADHD is a valid disorder found in both developed and developing cultures with neurobiological basis and untreated in many countries
  37. Culture bound syndromes
    • Norms of abnormal behavior observed only in certain sociocultural settings. 
    • •Sinbyong in Korea: means
    • spirit sickness. Hallucinations, dizziness, indigestion, heart palpitations. After fighting the illness, one patient became a shaman.

    • •Amok in Malaysia,
    • Philippines, and Thailand: Sudden
    • rage, homicidal aggression. Brought on by stress/alcohol consumption

    • •Anorexia nervosa in
    • the West (now spreading to other countries): distorted body image, fear of becoming fat.

    • •Ataque de nervios in Latin American
    • groups: Trembling, uncontrollable shouting, intense crying, heat in the chest, dizziness. Associated with stressful family events. 

    • •Zar among Ethiopian
    • immigrants to Israel: altered state of consciousness observed among ethiopian immigrants to israel. It is possession by zar spirits, expressed by involuntary movements, mutism, and incomprehensible language. 

    • •Whakama among New Zealand
    • Maori: shame, self abasement, feelings of  inferiority, inadequacy, self doubt, shyness, excessive modesty, withdrawl
  38. Paniagua’s assessment guidelines for practitioners for culture bound syndromes
    • 1)Become familiar with cultural background of client
    • 2)Check own cultural biases and prejudice
    • 3)Do not automatically jump to conclusion that client’s symptoms are culture-bound syndrome
    • 4)Ask culturally appropriate questions that allow elaboration by client on possible cultural
    • factors
  39. Culture Bound Syndromes Arise from
    • •Culture-specific areas of stress, including family and societal structures and ecological
    • conditions
    • •Culture-specific shaping of conduct and interpretations of conduct may mean that certain cultures implicitly approve patterns of exceptional behavior
    • •How culture interprets exceptional behavior will be linked to culture-specific interventions
  40. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis
    • Modifications made to the DSM-IV to increase cultural sensitivity; difficulty in classifying culture-bound syndromes remain
    • Local diagnostic system (e.g. Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders) created
    • Development of more culturally valid classification manual of disorders needed
  41. Cross Cultural Assessment of Abnormal Behavior
    • Valid and reliable measurement of pathology across cultures difficult and complex
    • Traditional tools of clinical assessment may have little meaning in cultures with varying definitions of abnormality
    • Culturally sensitive assessment methods examine sociocultural norms of healthy adjustment and culturally based definitions of abnormality
  42. Indigenous healing systems
    systems of cures (like folk healers) in other cultures.
  43. Overpathologizing
    occurs when the clinician, unfamiliar with the client’s cultural background, incorrectly judges the client’s behavior as pathological when in fact the behaviors are normal variations for that individual’s culture

    e.g. in some cultures, hearing the voices of deceased loved ones is normal
  44. Underpathologizing
    occurs when a clinician indiscriminately explains the client’s behavior as cultural

    e.g. attributing a withdrawn and flat emotional expression to a normal cultural communication style when in fact this behavior may be a symptom of depression.
  45. Measurement of Personality to Assess Psychopathology
    • Clinical studies across cultures involving personality scales are reliable and valid in assessing psychopathology and abnormal behavior in other cultures
    • Others argue that items of personality measure do not mean the same thing in other cultures
  46. African Americans and Mental Health
    • African Americans report higher rates of mental disorders than European Americans
    • This may be due to socioeconomic disparities
  47. Asian Americans and Mental Health
    • Very limited information available on Asian  americans’ mental health
    • Recent survey found that Asian Americans report lowest prevalence of disorders compared to other ethnic groups (This study is limited because it did not distinguish between different Asian ethnic groups)
  48. Latino Americans and Mental Health
    • The National Latino and Asian American  tudy report variations in rates of mental  illness among different Latino groups
    • •This may be due to reception of immigration, history of immigration, varying SES, experiences with discrimination, and strength of ethnic community
  49. Native Americans and Mental Health
    • report highest prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders compared with other ethnic groups
    • Variations within the Native American community exists
  50. Immigrant paradox
    • immigrants report better health and mental health compared to their US-born peers; this may be due to strong ties to family and access to a supportive ethnic community
    • Findings are inconsistent whether immigrants are at higher risk for mental  health problems due to acculturation
  51. Refugees and Mental Health
    Due to their traumatic experiences, refugees show higher rates of PTSD, depression, and anxiety than immigrants