Science: Classification of Living Things
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Why do people classify things?
- 1. To be organized
- 2. To find things easier
- 3. To group similar things together
- 4. To assign scientific names to organisms
Who became classifying living things 2,000 years ago?
How did Aristotle group things?
- 2 Main Groups:
- Plants and Animals
How did Aristotle organize animals?
- 1. Those that fly
- 2. Those that swim
- 3. Those that live on land
He grouped organisms together that shared similar characteristics
Linnaeus's System of Classification
What is an example of Linnaeus's System of Classification?
All warm-blooded animals were grouped together
The evolutionary history of an organism or how it's changed over time
What are the 7 levels of Classification?
- 1. Kingdom (largest)
- 2. Phylum
- 3. Class
- 4. Order
- 5. Family
- 6. Genus
- 7. Species (smallest)
What is special about the smallest level of Classification?
Species can breed with one another
What are the 7 Levels of Classification of Humans?
A 2 word naming system was given to all organisms
What's the scientific name for a Red Maple?
What does the 2nd word mean?
What is the first word in a Binomial Nomenclature?
Similar Group of Species
Tells something specific about the organism
What is the 2nd name in a Binomial Nomenclature?
Why even use Scientific Names?
- 1. Avoid making mistakes
- 2. Organisms with similar evolutionary history are classified together
- 3. They describe the organism
- 4. Helps with organization
How do you identify organisms?
A list of characteristics that you use to identify an organism
What are the 5 Kingdoms of Classification?
- 1. Monerans
- 2. Protista
- 3. Fungi
- 4. Plantae
- 5. Animalia
All bacteria are what?
Prokaryotic (have no nucelus)
How are Monerans classified?
By shape and where they live
3 Shapes of Monerans?
- Spirilla (spiral)
- Cocci (round)
- Bacilli (rod)
2 examples of Monerans?
archaebacteria and eubacteria
Consists of all single-celled Eukaryotic (has a nucleus) organisms
4 Examples of Protista?
Multi-Cellular heterotrophic (can't make their own food) organisms
What are 4 examples of Fungi?
- Blue Cheese
- Athlete's Foot
Multi-cellular autotrophic (organism that make their own food)
What does Plantae lack?
The ability to move
Organisms that are heterotrophic, muti-cellular, eukaryotic, and have the ability to move
What are the 2 categories of Animalia?
Vertebrate and Invertebrates
Animals without backbone
Animals with a backbone
8 Invertebrate Animal Phyla
What does Porifera mean?
Example of Porifera
Sessile (attatched to ocean floor)
Most are parasitic except for Planaria
It's head is called a Scolex
All are parasitic
3 Examples of Nematoda?
- Liver Flukes
- Pin Worms
- Heart Worms
Tastiest invert animal phyla
All have a shell whether internal or external
Have soft body
All have a "foot" used for different purposes
What do these Mollusks use their "foot" for?:
- To dig
- To move on
- Made into tentacles
What are 2 examples of Annelida?
Largest Invertebrate animal phylum
When stepped on they crunch
What is the one main characteristic of any Arthropoda?
What is the Characteristic of Echinodermatas?
What are 3 examples of Echinodermatas?
- Sand dollars
- Sea urchins
What was the problem with Aristotle's classification system?
Give an example:
Some animals fit into more than 1 category.
-Ducks live on land, swim, and fly.
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