Chapter 19 Micro

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  1. Know the 4 types of hypersensitivity:
    What molecules are involved? (cytokines, toxins, antibodies, complement)
    Type 1 (anaphylacitic)

    Type 2 (cytotoxic)

    Type 3 (immune complex)

    Type 4 (delayed cell-mediated, or delayed hypersensitivity)
  2. Know the 4 types of hypersensitivity:
    What cells are involved?
    • Type 1 (IgE attachedto mast cells and basophils)
    • Type 2 (IgG or IgM antibodies and complement)

    Type 3 (IgG antibodies and antigens from immune complexes that lodge in basement membranes)

    Type 4 (Non-pathogenic foreign molecules bind to host proteins to initiate a cell mediated immune response (anything from detergents to plant chemicals))
  3. Know the 4 types of hypersensitivity:
    How does damage occur? (mechanism of action)
    • Type 1 (Systemic anaphylaxis: May result in
    • circulatory collapse and death. Includes venom reactions, intravenous medication, and some food allergies. Localized anaphylaxis: Hives, hay fever, and asthma. Food and pollen allergies)

    Type 2 (Complement activation causes cell lysis or damage by macrophages)

    Type 3 (Cause organ damage or initiate arthritis like symptoms in joints. Triggers the release of enzymes from neutrophils and macrophages that damage the surrounding area in a non-specific manner).

    Type 4 (cytokines attract macrophages and TC cells: initiate tissue damage).
  4. Know the 4 types of hypersensitivity:
    Know examples discussed? (what happens in each and what are the consequences)
    Type 1 (When an antigen bridges the gap between two adjacent antibody molecules of the same specificity, the cell undergoes degranulation and releases histamine and other mediators.)

    Type 2 (Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Drug binds to platelet, forming haptonnn---platelet complex. Complex induces formation of antibodies against hapten. Action of antibodies and complement causes platelet destruction).

    Type 3 (Immune Complex-Mediated Hypersensitivity: Immune complexes are deposited in wall of blood vessel. Presence of immune complexes activates complement and attracts inflammatory cells such as neutrophils).

    Type 4 (Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Pentadecacatechol molecules combined with skin proteins 1-2 Days, secondary contact, cases dermatitis).
  5. Know the 4 types of hypersensitivity: 
    Know how quickly each type occurs
    Type 1 (<30 minutes)

    Type 2 (5-12 hours)

    Type 3 (3-8 hours)

    Type 4 (24-48 hours)
  6. Know the 4 types of hypersensitivity:   
    Know the symptoms?
    • Type 1 (Localized anaphylaxis: Hives, hay
    • fever, and asthma. Systemic anaphylaxis:
    • venom reactions, and food allergies).

    Type 2 (Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn: If the woman becomes pregnant with another Rh+ fetus, her anti Rh antibodies will cross the placenta and damage fetal red blood cells).

    Type 3 (Initiate arthritis like symptoms in joints).

    Type 4 (Rash like symptoms).
  7. HIV/AIDS:   
    Know the difference between HIV and AIDS
    HIV is a virus and AIDS is a definition. The difference between AIDS and HIV is that a person is said to have AIDS, as opposed to simply being HIV positive, when either the numbers of specific types of cells in their immune system drop below a certain level or when they develop one of a specific group of opportunistic infections. A person can live with HIV for many years without developing AIDS.
  8. Know what likely caused the introduction of HIV to humans
    Crossed the species barrier into humans in Africa. Spread in Africa as the result of urbanization. Spread worldwide through modern transportation and unsafe sexual practices.
  9. Know the basic difference between HIV-1 and
    HIV-2 is transmitted in the same ways as HIV-1: Through exposure to bodily fluids such as blood, semen, tears, and vaginal fluids. Immunodeficiency (or a weakened immune system) develops more slowly and is milder in persons with HIV-2. People infected with HIV-2 are less infectious in the early stages of the virus then those with HIV-2. Most reported cases if HIV-2 are found in West Africa.
  10. HIV/AIDS:
    Where were the first US cases recognized and why? (if you don’t remember from lecture read the textbook)
    The first HIV/AIDS case was first recognized in the Los Angeles area in 1981. Pneumocystis pneumonia was a rare disease that usually only occurred in immunosuppressed individuals. Investigators soon correlated the appearance of this disease with an unusual incidence of a rare form of cancer of the skin and blood vessels called Kaposi’s sarcoma. The people affected were young homosexual men that all showed a loss of immune function. The pathogen causing the loss of immune function had been identified as a virus that selective infects T helper cells.
  11. Know where the HIV is most prevalent
    HIV is most prevalent in west and central Africa, specifically the sub-Saharan Africa
  12. HIV/AIDS:
    Know the major risk factors by region
    In Sub-Saharan Africa, women are not educated on the use of condoms and there is no discouragement of sexual promiscuity. The exposure to HIV is very high for them because they have limited control. In underdeveloped countries, contaminated blood is a common source of infection, and programs are needed to encourage the use of only sterile needles. Injecting drug users tend to have a high rate of HIV infections. Hospitals in underdeveloped nations also must reuse needles for economic reasons, and sterilization is difficult. In developed countries, the availability of medication has changed HIV from a fatal disease to a chronic disease. It is often overlooked, however, that the available drugs are not a cure. The improvements in managing HIV infections have unfortunately resulted in relaxed attitudes toward safer sex practices, which has offset much of the value of treatments.
  13. Know the components of HIV and what the function of each (does unsure about the answer)
    Attachment is when the gp120 spike attaches to a receptor and to a CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptor on the cell. Fusion happens when the gp41 participates in fusion of the HIV with the cell. Lastly, the entry follows after fusion with the cell. An entry pore is created and the viral envelope remains behind while the HIV uncoats, releasing the RNA core for directing synthesis of the new virus.
  14. HIV/AIDS:
    Know what cell types are infected
    The cell types that are infected are the T cell and the macrophages.
  15. HIV/AIDS:
    Know the primary and nonsexual transmission routes
    Routes of HIV transmission include intimate sexual contact, breast milk, transplacental infection of a fetus, blood-contaminated needles, organ transplants, artificial insemination, and blood transfusions.
  16. HIV/AIDS:
    Know potential secondary infections at each stage
    An asymptomatic infection may occur and the person can develop swollen lymph nodes during the first stage. In the second stage, yeast infections from the organism Candida albicans may appear in the mouth, throat, or vagina. Other symptoms include fever and persistent diarrhea. Oral Leukoplakia, shingles, and other Epstein Barr infections may occur as a result of declining immunity. In the last stage, Candida albicans can appear as infections in the bronchi, trachea or lungs. Cytomegalovirus eye infections, tuberculosis, pneumocystis pneumoniae, toxoplasmosis of the brain, and Kaposi’s sarcoma may also appear.
  17. HIV/AIDS:
    Know tale tell infections and methods of diagnosis
    Patients who are beginning treatment for tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases must go in for routine screening of the HIV infection. The standard procedure for detecting HIV antibodies has been an ELISA test, which is considered the most sensitive. There are now several relatively inexpensive, rapid tests for HIV that is available at care clinics and emergency departments. The tests use urine or finger stick amounts of blood, and the OraQuick test even uses an oral swab of fluid. Positive tests for antibodies can be confirmed through the Western blot test. A new alternative to the Western blot test is the APTIMA assay that detects the RNA of the HIV-1 virus and  is easier read that the Western blot test. Conventional PVL tests or nucleic acid hybridization are also tests that can be used to detect HIV although they are costly.
  18. HIV/AIDS:
    Know the general category of treatment types and how they affect the virus.
    Chemotherapy is type of treatment that has made a lot of progress. The drugs that are used to fight the infections can temporarily control the reproduction of the virus. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors use competitive inhibition to terminate viral DNA. Protease inhibitors perform the essential process of cleaving lengthy viral proteins into smaller, mature structural proteins. Cell entry inhibitors block the virus from attaching to the cell. Integrase inhibitors target the HIV integrase from forming the HIV provirus.
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Chapter 19 Micro
2013-06-03 23:51:18

Microbiology Final
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