Avian Embryology

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Anonymous
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22238
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Avian Embryology
Updated:
2010-06-06 05:27:59
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Hatchability
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  1. What are the experimental approaches to improve incubation
    • -Pre-incubation methods
    • -Photo-acceleration
    • -Electromagnetic Radiation
    • -Chemicals
    • -Auditory Stimulation
    • -Biology
    • -Incubation temperature
    • -Personal Imagination
  2. What did Kosin do?
    Heated eggs to 100F for 5 hours, then stored for 1-20+ days
  3. What did Becker do?
    Stored for 5 hours at 100F, then stored for 16-22 days, his hatch of fertile= 89%
  4. What did Coleman and McDaniel do?
    Incubated eggs under florescent light at 7 doi
  5. Green light=
    Reduced hatch, ectopic viscera
  6. Blue light=
    Improved hatch 6%
  7. Yellow/Red light=
    decreased development by 16 hours
  8. What did Dimbrov find?
    A 5-8% increase in hatchability using electromagnetism
  9. What did Wentworth find?
    Spraying eggs with Corticosterone on day 19 shortened development 12 hours
  10. What does Dipping eggs in testosterone do?
    on Day 13= chemically bursectomized chicks (chicks without humoral immune systems)
  11. Embryo Vocalizations
    • -Common in precocial birds
    • -Are different from clicking sounds
    • -Begin 1-3 days before hatching
    • -Have 3 distinct types
  12. 3 Types of embryo vocalization
    • -Distress
    • -Contentment
    • -Brooding-like calls
  13. Clicking sounds
    • -Sharp metallic sound
    • -Not produced by bill tapping
    • -Produced by respiratory air passage over syrinx
    • -Syncronizes hatching process, but eggs must be in contact with each other
  14. What did "White" do and find?
    • -Subjected eggs to metronome clicks as a maternal broody call
    • -Eggs responded to internal clicks, not maternal broody call
  15. Nitric-Oxide
    May function in communications between parent and offspring
  16. Megapodes (Sex manipulation via incubation)
    Incubation at LOW/HIGH temps result in sex-biased embryo mortality
  17. How many chicks can you sell from how many eggs you have?
    • Factors to consider:
    • -Hatchability
    • -2%+ Culls
  18. How many chicks can you afford after selling your first hatch?
    • Factors to consider:
    • -Every 100 chicks sold= 102-104 chicks bought
    • -Divide your total of chick sold by 102-104%
  19. Every breeder strain has a managment guid that provides hatchability under ideal conditions
    True
  20. Define Growing Livability
    Number of chicks alive at a given age
  21. Define Production Length
    Number of weeks the hen has maintained in production
  22. Define Production livability
    Number of hens alive at the end of their production cycle
  23. Define Total Number of eggs per Hens Housed (HH)
    Number of eggs produced per hen when housed at a specific age
  24. What is the formula for Total Hatching Eggs/HH ?
    % of the total eggs per hen that are settable
  25. What are the different units for HE/HH (Hatching eggs/Hen Housed)
    • 12=Dozen of eggs
    • 288= 24 Dozen cases
    • 360= 30 Dozen cases (1 box)
    • -Expressed Weekly
  26. What factors should be considered in the Cost of a Hatching Chick?
    • -Labor efficiency, automation
    • -Wage rate for employees
    • -Managerial efficiency
    • -Utilization of incubator company
    • -Hatchability of eggs
    • -Size of Operation in chicks/week
    • -Age and condition of hatchery
    • -Depreciation costs
    • -Discounts on supplies
    • -Utility rates
  27. What is the average gallons/day used in a 12 machine factory?
    8,200 Gallons/day
  28. What are the services done to newly hatched chicks?
    • -Grading
    • -Sexing
    • -Pharmaceuticals
    • -Beak trimming
    • -Dubbing (de-combing)
    • -Desooting
    • -Toe clipping
    • -Transportation
  29. What factors are there when designing a hatchery?
    • -Size/Location
    • -Type
    • -Personnel traffic flow
    • -Egg and chick traffic
    • -Egg recieving area
    • -Room sizes
  30. How many feet away should a hatchery be from a poultry building?
    at least >1,000 feet
  31. What are the main 2 principal building types?
    • -Rectangular
    • -T-Shape
  32. What type of hatchery design is most seen today?
    T-Shape
  33. What other types of hatchery building are there?
    • -Small hatchery (non-automated)
    • -Multi-stage hatchery
  34. What are the rule of thumb for the egg holding room?
    • -Store 1wk eggs
    • -Have 1.2sq.ft. per 1,000 eggs
    • -Have 15sq.ft. per buggy
    • -65F
    • -75% RH
  35. Setter Room rules of thumb:
    • -Easy access to incubators
    • -Minimum of 30'' passage ways
    • -Room temp= 70-75F
    • -50% RH
  36. Hatcher Room rules of thumb:
    • -More than 1 room
    • -Minimum 10'' passage ways
    • -12ft ceilings for cleaning
    • -75F
    • -50% RH
  37. Chick Room rules of thumb:
    • -Minimum 12-25sq.ft./1,000 chicks
    • -12ft ceilings for cleaning
    • -75F
    • -50-65%RH
  38. Loading/Platform truck rules of thumb:
    • -Necessary in hot/cold environments
    • -75F
    • -50-65%RH
  39. What are the AVMA sanctioned methods for dispatching?
    • -Grinding
    • -CO2 inhalation
    • -Hypothermic exposure
    • -Cervical dislocation
  40. What are the incubation designs of the 1900s?
    • -Sectional (Still-air),Coal, Gas, Electric
    • -Cabinet (Forced-air drafts)
    • -Combinations (Setter/Hatcher units)
  41. What are the features of modern incubators?
    • -Small amounts of floor space
    • -Improved cabinet materials
    • -Redwood, stainless steel, fiberglass
    • -Forced draft air circulation
    • -Automatic controls
    • -CO2 detection
    • -Elimination of repeat egg traying
    • -Mechanical egg turning
    • -Separate hatcher units
    • -Enhanced cooling
    • -Flooress machines
    • -Shortened egg transfer
    • -Down collector
    • -Monitoring alarms
    • -More efficient cleaning
    • -Infrared monitoring
    • -Computer regulated
    • -Egg candlers
  42. Equipment in the Hatchery
    • -Service tables
    • -Sexing cubicles
    • -Vacuums vs. brooms
    • -Pressure washers
    • -Tray and buggy washers
    • -Controlled atmospheres by room
    • -Vaccination
    • -Beak trimming
  43. Define cleaning
    Removing adhering material from surfaces
  44. Define Sanitizer
    Reduces to "safe levels"
  45. Define Disinfectant
    Kills 100% bacteria
  46. Define Sterilant
    Kills bacteria, endospores, fungi, and viruses
  47. How to avoid contamination in breeders
    • -Bio-security
    • -Feed quality
    • -Hygiene of birds and equipment
    • -Rodent control
  48. What is an example of proper clean-->dirty flow?
    • 1. Egg storage and setting
    • 2. Setting
    • 3. Setters
    • 4. Transfer area
    • 5. Hatcher
    • 6. Chick processing
    • 7. Waste removal/Tray washing
  49. What are pathogens of concern to the hatchery?
    • -Bacteria
    • -Virus
    • -Fungi
    • -Protozoan
    • -Mycoplasma
  50. Considerations for choosing disinfectant properties:
    • -Non-toxic to chicks, embryos, and humans when used properly
    • -Harmless to the surfaces which the disinfectant/sanitizer is applied to.
    • -How application is made (foam, soak, spray, aerosol)
  51. The disinfecant selected should:
    • -Be fast acting, even in the presence of organic matter
    • -Be effective against all types of infectious agents ("broad spectrum")
    • -Easily penetrate the material to be disinfected without damaging or discoloring the material
    • -Be easy to prepare and be stable when exposed to environmental factors
    • -Be inexpensive
    • -Not have an unpleasant odor
  52. The effectiveness of the disinfectant/sanitizer is dependent upon a number of factors:
    • -Absence of organic material
    • -The type of surface
    • -The diluent properties (hard water)
    • -The length of time it is in contact with the surface
    • -The temp of the surface
    • -Effective concentration
    • -pH can increase/decrease potency
    • -Compatibility between the disinfectant and the cleaner
  53. What are Hatchery Disinfections used for?
    • -Water
    • -Air
    • -Premise
    • -Equipment
    • -Foot bath
  54. To kill microorganisms disinfectants/sanitizers require:
    • -Concentration
    • -Time
    • -Temp (generally higher)
    • -pH (ionization)
    • -Diluent properties
    • -Compatibility of cleaner properties
    • -Humidity
    • -Compatiblity with surface
  55. What are the two types of detergents?
    • -Cationic (+ charge)
    • -Anionic (- charge)
  56. Different classes of disinfectant typically found in a hatchery
    • -Halogens
    • -Quaternary Ammonium
    • -Phenols
    • -Alkylating Agents
    • -Oxidizing Agents
  57. Classes of disinfectants NOT typically used in a hatchery:
    • -Creosols
    • -Dyes
    • -Heavy Metals
    • -Alcohol
    • -Radiation
  58. It is difficult to differentiate a source of infection via observations in dead/newly hatched chicks
    TRUE
  59. Features of Poultry Diseases that are of concern to the hatchery person:
    • -Names of the disease
    • -Organism
    • -Signs/Symptoms
    • -Methods of transmission
    • -Diagnosis
    • -Prevention
    • -Treatment
  60. What are some poultry diseases influencing hatchability and chick quality?
    • -Pullorum
    • -Arizona Disease
    • -Fowl typhoid
    • -Paratyphoid
    • -Omphalitis
    • -E.coli
    • -Mycoplasma
  61. What are the types of exposure methods for pathogens coming into contact with the embryo?
    • 1. Primary-vertical transmission
    • -Trans-ovarian via infected breeders
    • 2. Secondary-vertical transmission
    • -Systemic infection of breeder
    • 3. Shell penetration
    • 4. Horizontal transmission
    • -Egg-Egg/Chick-Chick
    • 5. Vaccinations
    • -Contamination
  62. What is an example of posterior duplication?
    4 legs
  63. What goes along with beak deformity?
    Eye deformity
  64. What is Amaxilla?
    No/Reduced upper beak
  65. What is an example of anterior duplication?
    2 heads
  66. What can severe posterior duplication lead to?
    Coelosomia
  67. What is a common cause of open spine?
    Temperature variations
  68. Disease almost always comes from the hatchery
    True
  69. What is the cause of the symptom White Diarrhea?
    Polorum samonela
  70. What is the easiest way for pathogens to come in contact with embryo?
    Primary Vertical Transmission
  71. Is Polorum highly transmissable?
    No, but influenza is!
  72. Embryo positions during development: Day 3
    Turns onto left side
  73. Embryo positions during development: Day 10
    At right angle to long axis of egg
  74. Embryo positions during development: Day 14
    Body is parallel with long axis of egg
  75. Embryo positions during devlopment: Day 18
    Assumes Hatch position
  76. What is the CO2 concentration in the air cell on 19 doi?
    6-8%
  77. Malposition I
    • -Head between thighs
    • -Completely lethal
    • -Cause: Elevated temperature
  78. Malposition II
    • -Head in Small End
    • -Week 2 critical
    • -Cause: Lowered temperature, horizontal vs. vertical
  79. Malposition III
    • -Head under left wing
    • -Almost completely lethal
    • -Causes: High/Low temperature, Horizontal vs. Vertical, Breeder nutrition
  80. Malpositon IV
    • -Beak directed away from air cel
    • -Week 3 critical
    • -Causes: Horizontal vs. Vertical egg position
  81. Malposition V
    • -Feet over Head
    • -May affect hatchability
  82. Malposition VI
    • -Head over Right Wing
    • -May affect hatchability
    • -Vitamin deficiencies
  83. Malposition Combinations
    • -I & II
    • -III & IV
    • -V & VI
  84. What are the genetic factors contributing to malpositions?
    • -Individual hens
    • -Inbreeding
    • -Sticky lethal (Malposition III)
  85. Malposition I occurence:
    12.5%
  86. Malposition II occurence:
    7.5%
  87. Malposition III occurence
    7.5%
  88. Malposition IV occurence
    4.5%
  89. Malposition V
    20%
  90. Malposition VI
    48%
  91. Non-genetic factors contributing to Malpositions:
    • -Larger eggs= Malposition III
    • -Decreased turning frequency
    • -Incubating eggs Small end up= Malposition III
    • -Large end coated with parafin= Malposition II
    • -Allantois sticking to shell membrane= I & III
  92. What % of hatched chicks are not marketable?
    8%
  93. Residual yolk mass in newly hatched chicks can account for how much of hatch weight?
    20%
  94. What is the Merkels diverticulum?
    After 10 days of age, it is the only remnant of the yolk sac

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