Card Set Information
Prepping for final
What are the experimental approaches to improve incubation
What did Kosin do?
Heated eggs to 100F for 5 hours, then stored for 1-20+ days
What did Becker do?
Stored for 5 hours at 100F, then stored for 16-22 days, his hatch of fertile= 89%
What did Coleman and McDaniel do?
Incubated eggs under florescent light at 7 doi
Reduced hatch, ectopic viscera
Improved hatch 6%
decreased development by 16 hours
What did Dimbrov find?
A 5-8% increase in hatchability using electromagnetism
What did Wentworth find?
Spraying eggs with Corticosterone on day 19 shortened development 12 hours
What does Dipping eggs in testosterone do?
on Day 13= chemically bursectomized chicks (chicks without humoral immune systems)
-Common in precocial birds
-Are different from clicking sounds
-Begin 1-3 days before hatching
-Have 3 distinct types
3 Types of embryo vocalization
-Sharp metallic sound
-Not produced by bill tapping
-Produced by respiratory air passage over syrinx
-Syncronizes hatching process, but eggs must be in contact with each other
What did "White" do and find?
-Subjected eggs to metronome clicks as a maternal broody call
-Eggs responded to internal clicks, not maternal broody call
May function in communications between parent and offspring
Megapodes (Sex manipulation via incubation)
Incubation at LOW/HIGH temps result in sex-biased embryo mortality
How many chicks can you sell from how many eggs you have?
Factors to consider:
How many chicks can you afford after selling your first hatch?
Factors to consider:
-Every 100 chicks sold= 102-104 chicks bought
-Divide your total of chick sold by 102-104%
Every breeder strain has a managment guid that provides hatchability under ideal conditions
Define Growing Livability
Number of chicks alive at a given age
Define Production Length
Number of weeks the hen has maintained in production
Define Production livability
Number of hens alive at the end of their production cycle
Define Total Number of eggs per Hens Housed (HH)
Number of eggs produced per hen when housed at a specific age
What is the formula for
Total Hatching Eggs/HH ?
% of the total eggs per hen that are settable
What are the different units for HE/HH (Hatching eggs/Hen Housed)
12=Dozen of eggs
288= 24 Dozen cases
360= 30 Dozen cases (1 box)
What factors should be considered in the Cost of a Hatching Chick?
-Labor efficiency, automation
-Wage rate for employees
-Utilization of incubator company
-Hatchability of eggs
-Size of Operation in chicks/week
-Age and condition of hatchery
-Discounts on supplies
What is the average gallons/day used in a 12 machine factory?
What are the services done to newly hatched chicks?
What factors are there when designing a hatchery?
-Personnel traffic flow
-Egg and chick traffic
-Egg recieving area
How many feet away should a hatchery be from a poultry building?
at least >1,000 feet
What are the main 2 principal building types?
What type of hatchery design is most seen today?
What other types of hatchery building are there?
-Small hatchery (non-automated)
What are the rule of thumb for the egg holding room?
-Store 1wk eggs
-Have 1.2sq.ft. per 1,000 eggs
-Have 15sq.ft. per buggy
Setter Room rules of thumb:
-Easy access to incubators
-Minimum of 30'' passage ways
-Room temp= 70-75F
Hatcher Room rules of thumb:
-More than 1 room
-Minimum 10'' passage ways
-12ft ceilings for cleaning
Chick Room rules of thumb:
-Minimum 12-25sq.ft./1,000 chicks
-12ft ceilings for cleaning
Loading/Platform truck rules of thumb:
-Necessary in hot/cold environments
What are the AVMA sanctioned methods for dispatching?
What are the incubation designs of the 1900s?
-Sectional (Still-air),Coal, Gas, Electric
-Cabinet (Forced-air drafts)
-Combinations (Setter/Hatcher units)
What are the features of modern incubators?
-Small amounts of floor space
-Improved cabinet materials
-Redwood, stainless steel, fiberglass
-Forced draft air circulation
-Elimination of repeat egg traying
-Mechanical egg turning
-Separate hatcher units
-Shortened egg transfer
-More efficient cleaning
Equipment in the Hatchery
-Vacuums vs. brooms
-Tray and buggy washers
-Controlled atmospheres by room
Removing adhering material from surfaces
Reduces to "safe levels"
Kills 100% bacteria
Kills bacteria, endospores, fungi, and viruses
How to avoid contamination in breeders
-Hygiene of birds and equipment
What is an example of proper clean-->dirty flow?
1. Egg storage and setting
4. Transfer area
6. Chick processing
7. Waste removal/Tray washing
What are pathogens of concern to the hatchery?
Considerations for choosing disinfectant properties:
-Non-toxic to chicks, embryos, and humans when used properly
-Harmless to the surfaces which the disinfectant/sanitizer is applied to.
-How application is made (foam, soak, spray, aerosol)
The disinfecant selected should:
-Be fast acting, even in the presence of organic matter
-Be effective against all types of infectious agents ("broad spectrum")
-Easily penetrate the material to be disinfected without damaging or discoloring the material
-Be easy to prepare and be stable when exposed to environmental factors
-Not have an unpleasant odor
The effectiveness of the disinfectant/sanitizer is dependent upon a number of factors:
-Absence of organic material
-The type of surface
-The diluent properties (hard water)
-The length of time it is in contact with the surface
-The temp of the surface
-pH can increase/decrease potency
-Compatibility between the disinfectant and the cleaner
What are Hatchery Disinfections used for?
To kill microorganisms disinfectants/sanitizers require:
-Temp (generally higher)
-Compatibility of cleaner properties
-Compatiblity with surface
What are the two types of detergents?
-Cationic (+ charge)
-Anionic (- charge)
Different classes of disinfectant typically found in a hatchery
Classes of disinfectants NOT typically used in a hatchery:
It is difficult to differentiate a source of infection via observations in dead/newly hatched chicks
Features of Poultry Diseases that are of concern to the hatchery person:
-Names of the disease
-Methods of transmission
What are some poultry diseases influencing hatchability and chick quality?
What are the types of exposure methods for pathogens coming into contact with the embryo?
1. Primary-vertical transmission
-Trans-ovarian via infected breeders
2. Secondary-vertical transmission
-Systemic infection of breeder
3. Shell penetration
4. Horizontal transmission
What is an example of posterior duplication?
What goes along with beak deformity?
What is Amaxilla?
No/Reduced upper beak
What is an example of anterior duplication?
What can severe posterior duplication lead to?
What is a common cause of
Disease almost always comes from the hatchery
What is the cause of the symptom
What is the easiest way for pathogens to come in contact with embryo?
Primary Vertical Transmission
Is Polorum highly transmissable?
No, but influenza is!
Embryo positions during development: Day 3
Turns onto left side
Embryo positions during development: Day 10
At right angle to long axis of egg
Embryo positions during development: Day 14
Body is parallel with long axis of egg
Embryo positions during devlopment: Day 18
Assumes Hatch position
What is the CO2 concentration in the air cell on 19 doi?
-Head between thighs
: Elevated temperature
-Head in Small End
-Week 2 critical
: Lowered temperature, horizontal vs. vertical
-Head under left wing
-Almost completely lethal
: High/Low temperature, Horizontal vs. Vertical, Breeder nutrition
-Beak directed away from air cel
-Week 3 critical
: Horizontal vs. Vertical egg position
-Feet over Head
-May affect hatchability
-Head over Right Wing
-May affect hatchability
-I & II
-III & IV
-V & VI
What are the genetic factors contributing to malpositions?
-Sticky lethal (Malposition III)
Malposition I occurence:
Malposition II occurence:
Malposition III occurence
Malposition IV occurence
Non-genetic factors contributing to Malpositions:
-Larger eggs= Malposition III
-Decreased turning frequency
-Incubating eggs Small end up= Malposition III
-Large end coated with parafin= Malposition II
-Allantois sticking to shell membrane= I & III
What % of hatched chicks are not marketable?
Residual yolk mass in newly hatched chicks can account for how much of hatch weight?
What is the Merkels diverticulum?
After 10 days of age, it is the only remnant of the yolk sac