SUR 120 - Test 1

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jb124
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222431
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SUR 120 - Test 1
Updated:
2013-06-04 22:52:41
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microbiology
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microbiology
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  1. thickening around edge of the nucleus, which regulates movement of materials in and out of the nucleus
    nuclear membrane
  2. strands of DNA bearing genes that carry hereditary characteristics
    chromosomes
  3. area in nucleus concerned with protein synthesis
    nucleolus
  4. outer wall of cell that allows molecules to pass through
    cell membrane
  5. protoplasm making up cell's nucleus
    nucleoplasm
  6. protoplasm within cell membrane but not contained in nucleus
    cytoplasm
  7. serve as cell's own circulatory system
    endoplasmic reticula
  8. synthesizes carbohydrates, combines them with protein, and packages and transports the product
    Golgi apparatus
  9. produce energy for the cell through cellular respiration and are known as power plants for the cell
    mitochondria
  10. digest and disintegrate contents of vacuoles
    lysosomes
  11. contain RNA and protein - synthesize protein and are called protein factories
    ribosomes
  12. form spindle that appears during mitosis
    centrosomes
  13. fingerlike structures that project from cell surface and increase surface area
    microvilli
  14. where are microvilli present?
    membranes of mucosal cells of small intestine of the body
  15. tiny, hairlike projections that move a cell through its environment
    cilia
  16. where are cilia present?
    on cells forming surface of the nasal cavity and bronchi of respiratory tract
  17. single, hairlike projections on surface of a cell to provide locomotion
    flagella
  18. 4 stages of mitosis
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  19. gives rise to 2 daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell
    mitosis
  20. where does mitosis occur?
    in all human cells except reproductive cells and nerve tissue cells
  21. gives rise to 4 daughter cells that contain only half number of chromosomes found in parent cell
    meiosis
  22. where does meiosis occur?
    in reproductive cells
  23. most abundant substance in protoplasm that serves as solvent in all cell chemistry
    water
  24. second most abundant substance in animal protoplasm that forms structural framework of protoplasm
    protein
  25. energy sources
    • carbohydrates
    • fats
  26. control growth and reproduction of cell
    nucleic acids
  27. act as buffers in acid-base balance and maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
    mineral salts
  28. transport that requires energy from the cell
    active transport
  29. moves molecules or ions through cell membrane in an uphill direction, from lower to higher concentration gradients, against natural tendency
    physiological pump
  30. process of engulfing solid particle
    phagocytosis
  31. process of engulfing liquid particle
    pinocytosis
  32. transport that does not require energy from the cell
    passive transport
  33. process in which particles move to equalize concentration throughout a cell
    diffusion
  34. process in which solvent molecules pass through semipermeable membrane to equalize concentration on each side of cell membrane
    osmosis
  35. process in which particles move through filter or membrane that prevents passage of certain molecules
    filtration
  36. tissue that protects, supports, transports, and binds body together
    connective tissue
  37. tissue that moves the body by contraction and relaxation of muscle pairs
    muscle tissue
  38. tissue that conducts impulses throughout the body
    nerve tissue
  39. membranes that line cavities and passageways of the body that open to exterior environment
    mucous membranes
  40. membranes that line closed cavities and organs within the body
    serous membranes
  41. 2 layers of serous membrane
    • visceral - covers organs
    • parietal - lines cavities
  42. membranes that line joints, tendons, and bursae, and secrete synovial fluid that prevents friction on smooth, moist surfaces
    synovial membranes
  43. membranes that cover body and are continuous with mucous membranes
    cutaneous membranes
  44. 2 layers of cutaneous membranes
    • epidermis
    • dermis
  45. major classes of microorganisms
    • bacteria
    • helminths
    • rickettsiae
    • viruses
  46. two different kinds of organisms living independently without affecting each other
    independence
  47. each organism derives some benefit from the other
    mutualism
  48. one organism receives benefit from another but causes it no harm
    commensalism
  49. the living together of 2 different kinds of organisms
    symbiosis
  50. one organism derives benefit from another at the other's expense
    parasitism
  51. spherical, round-shaped bacteria
    cocci
  52. rod-shaped bacteria that may have a short or long curved end
    bacillus
  53. spiral bacteria that is rigid and wavy-shaped
    spirillum
  54. spiral bacteria that is corkscrew-shaped
    spirochete
  55. produces toxins that causes many diseases
    pathogenic
  56. round, inactive, nonreproductive structures capable of developing into new vegetative organisms under right conditions
    endospores
  57. what destroys endospores?
    autoclaving
  58. protective layers that surround many bacterial cells, increase the strength of bacteria, and aid in identification
    capsules
  59. hairlike appendages that provide a means of locomotion
    flagella
  60. microorganisms much smaller than bacteria but larger than viruses
    rickettsiae
  61. multicellular animal parasites (worms)
    helminths
  62. microorganisms so small they can only be seen with electron microscope - no metabolic function
    viruses
  63. nonliving objects that can transmit an infectious agent
    fomites
  64. when body's own immune system produces antibodies against infectious agent
    active immunity
  65. immunity produced when a person is exposed to or contracts disease and subsequently produces their own antibodies
    naturally-acquired active immunity
  66. immunity produced when vaccine administered that causes body to produce antibodies
    artificially-acquired active immunity
  67. when antibodies from outside source are introduced into the body so that it does not have to produce its own
    passive immunity
  68. immunity produced when mother's antibodies are passed through placenta or breast milk to the fetus
    natural passive immunity
  69. immunity produced when immune serums are injected into the body
    artificially-acquired passive immunity

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