Med Terms 3

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Author:
liana_george
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222436
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Med Terms 3
Updated:
2013-06-04 16:00:08
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Digestive system medical terminology
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Lesson 3
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  1. Digestive system is otherwise known as:
    • Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
    • Alimentary canal
  2. Palate
    Separates oral and nasal cavity
  3. Uvula
    Hangs in posterior portion of oral cavity, aids in production of SOUNDS & SPEECH
  4. Tongue
    Assists in chewing, swallowing and speaking
  5. Teeth
    Provide hard surfaces for mastication
  6. Pharynx
    aka Throat, a passageway for food traveling from the oral cavity to the esophagus & air traveling from the oral cavity to the esophagus
  7. Esophagus
    Muscular tube extending from pharynx to stomach, peristalsis propels food to the stomach
  8. Cardia (stomach)
    Where the esophagus connects to the stomach
  9. Fundus (stomach)
    Superior domed portion
  10. Body (stomach)
    Between the fundus & pylorus
  11. Pylorus (stomach)
    Lower portion connecting to the small intestine
  12. Ruggae (stomach)
    Folds of the stomach lining; contain glands that produce digestive enzymes
  13. Duodenum
    First section of the small intestine
  14. Jejunum
    Middle section of the small intestine
  15. Ileum
    Terminal section of the small intestine that connects to the large intestine
  16. Enter/o
    Intestines, usually small
  17. Cecum
    First portion of the large intestine
  18. Colon
    Extends from the cecum to the rectum in the large intestine
  19. Rectum
    Extension that holds solid waste in the large intestine
  20. Anus
    Exit from the large intestine to the outside of the body
  21. Ascending colon
    First portion of the colon
  22. Transverse colon
    Second portion of the colon
  23. Descending colon
    Third portion of the colon
  24. Sigmoid colon
    Fourth & terminal portion of the colon that joins with the rectum
  25. Accessory organs of the Digestive System
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
    • (Duodenum)
  26. Liver
    Produces & secretes bile into the gallbladder
  27. Bile
    Fluid that aids in digestion
  28. Gallbladder
    Stores bile & sends it to the duodenum
  29. Pancreas
    Secretes juices into the small intestine that aids in digestion
  30. Bolus
    Moistened food still inside the mouth
  31. Chyme
    Partially digested food
  32. Defecation
    Elimination of feces through the rectum
  33. Deglutition
    The act of swallowing
  34. Mastication
    Chewing
  35. Sphincter
    Circular ring of muscle that constructs a passage or closes a natural opening
  36. Feces
    Solid waste products
  37. Hematochezia
    Passage of bloody stools
  38. Melena
    Black, tarry stools due to occult blood
  39. Occult blood
    Blood in feces in amounts too small to be seen with the naked eye
  40. Anorexia
    Lack of appetite
  41. Ascites
    Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
  42. Bororygus
    Rumbling or gurgling noise in the GI tract, movement of gas, fluid or both
  43. Diarrhea
    Frequent passage of loose, watery stools, a result of acute infection or toxins
  44. Eructation
    Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth, bleching
  45. Flatus
    Gas expelled through the anus, flatulence
  46. Hematochezia
    Passage of bright red blood from the rectum, bleeding (colitis, ulcers, polyps in the colon or rectum)
  47. Hyperbilirubinemia
    Jaundice/icterus, yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of eyes
  48. Melena
    Black, tarry stools, feces contain digested blood
  49. Steatorrhea
    Fat in the feces
  50. Cholecystitis
    Inflammation of the gallbladder
  51. Gastroenteritis
    Inflammation of the stomach & intestines
  52. Pancreatitis
    Inflammation of the pancreas
  53. Peritonitis
    Inflammation of the peritoneal cavity
  54. Esophageal Varices
    Swollen varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
  55. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    Solids & fluids return to the mouth from the stomach, heartburn caused by regurgitation of the hydrochloric acid from the stomach to the esophagus (can lead to esophagitis)
  56. Hernia
    Organ (or part of an organ) protrudes through the muscle that normally contains it
  57. Hiatal hernia
    Upper part of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm
  58. Inguinal hernia
    Part of the bowel protrudes through a weakened muscle in the lower abdomen
  59. Colonic Polyposis
    Polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membranes of the colon
  60. Colorectal cancer
    Adenocarcinoma of the colon, rectum or both, can arise from polyps, diagnosed by COLONOSCOPY & blood in stool (MELENA)
  61. Crohn's Disease
    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract, form of inflammatory bowel disease
  62. Diverticulum
    Abnormal pouch on the wall of the intestines
  63. Diverticulitis
    Inflammation of a diverticulum
  64. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
    Affects the large intestine (colon), painful disease with alternating symptoms of constipation and diarrhea
  65. Ulcerative Colitis
    Chronic inflammation of colon with presence of ulcers in colon & rectum, higher risk of COLON CANCER
  66. Ileus
    Obstruction of the intestine
  67. Hemoccult test
    Screening test used to determine the presence of hidden blood in feces
  68. Stool culture
    Microscopic examination of feces for pathogens
  69. Liver function tests
    Tests for the presence of enzymes & bilirubin
  70. Endoscopy
    Use of an endoscope to examine the inside of organs
  71. Colonoscopy
    Process of examining the colon
  72. Virtual colonoscopy
    Cancerous polyp
  73. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    Process of examining the esophagus, stomach & duodenum
  74. Flexible signoidoscopy
    Process of examining the colon & descending colon with a flexible endoscope
  75. Proctoscopy
    Process of examining the rectum & anus
  76. Laparoscopy
    Process of examining the abdominal area
  77. Barium enema
    Lower GI series - barium is injected into the RECTUM via an enema

    Upper GI series - barium is ingested via the MOUTH, X-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, small intestines
  78. Ultrasound Examination
    Abdominal ultrasonography, sound waves produce an image of viscera
  79. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    Magnetic & radio waves produce images of tissues & organs, X-rays are NOT used
  80. Nasogastric (NG) intubation
    Insertion of a tube through the nose to the stomach for feeding or suction
  81. Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
    Feeding maintained entirely by intravenous injection or other nongastrointestinal route
  82. Appendectomy
    Removal of the appendix
  83. Cholecystectomy
    Removal of the gallbladder
  84. Gastrectomy
    Removal of the stomach
  85. Gastric resection
    Removal of a section of the stomach
  86. Polypectomy
    Removal of polyps
  87. Antacid
    Used to reduce stomach acid
  88. Antiemetic
    Used to stop or prevent nausea & vomiting
  89. Emetic
    Used to induce vomiting
  90. Laxative
    Used to promote expulsion of feces
  91. Gastroenterology
    Medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis & treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract
  92. Proctology
    Medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis & treatment of disorders of the anus & rectum

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