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2013-06-13 19:59:39

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    • from vf vibratin
    • harmonic spectrum
    •   -energy at harmonic intervals
    •   -usually some noise in btw, though for normal voices there is very little noise at lower frequencies (below 3-4 khz)
    • based on the configuration of the upper vocal tract
    • modifies energy from the source
    • two parts
    •   -transfer function (ie formants)
    •   -radiation characteristic from lip opening - +6 dB/octave
  2. harmonic spectra and women
    • female harmonics are spread farther apart than males
    • femalemale
  3. what is the SOURCE in the source filter theory
    vocal folds (source function)
  4. what is the FILTER in the source filter theory
    • vocal tract
    • allow some resonance to go through while some is restricted (shown as transfer function, peak=resonate, trough=restricted
  5. what is the OUTPUT in the source filter theory
    • lips
    • combo of source function and transfer function
  6. what are source, filter and radiation in relation to one another?
    • source and radiation characteristics are relatively independent of articulatory configuration
    • *radiation refers to lips
  7. what is transfer function highly dependent on
    articulatory configuration
  8. formant frequencies
    do not uniquely specify all vowels for perception because there are individual differences, not the same for all (ie how one says /a/ may be dif for another person but still recognized as /a/)
  9. what are the characteristics of front vowels?
    • large separation of f1 and f2
    • small separation of f2 and f3
    • quantal vowel /i/ -  high, front vowel (spread lips)
    •   -lowest f1
    •   -highest f2
    •   -highest f3
  10. what are the characteristics of back vowels
    • small separation btw f1 and f2
    • large separation btw f2 and f3
    • quantal vowel - /u/ - high back vowel (rounded)
    •   -low f1
    •   -lowest f2
    •   -lowest f3
  11. characteristics of central vowels
    • evenly spaced 
    • mid range value of F1
  12. where is the optimal place to measure formant frequency
    in the center of  the vowel to obtain steady state info
  13. LPC
    Linear predictive coding gives envelope of the formants (frequency by amplitude)
  14. spectogram
    depicts all speech sounds as energy. shows freq, amp and time
  15. wide band spectogram
    • identifying formants and noise
    • generally used for speech analysis
  16. narrow band spectograms
    identifying harmonics
  17. how can formant frequencies be displayed
    • f1-f2 plots
    • scatter plots
  18. what does lip rounding do?
    • ellongates the length of the tube so lowers the formant freqs
    • usually back vowels have lip rounding
    • front vowels usually do not
  19. how do you measure amp and bandwidth
    • can use LPC analysis
    • amp is measured at the peak of the formant
  20. what is the bandwidth
    • freq range of  energy of a sound
    • depends on the damping within the vocal tract
  21. what are nasalized vowels
    • formants from oral cavity
    • formants from nasal cavity
    • anitformants due to bifurcation
    • damping due to soft, mucous tissue in nasal passages
    • lower amp than non nasalized vowels
  22. tense vowels
    press articulators tightly and hold position for a long time
  23. lax vowels
    assume a looser constriction and held for short times
  24. how does speech rate affect formants
    • articulatory undershoot occurs more as speech rate increases
    • some studies show a change in FF some have not
    • duration of vowels is reduced with increased speech rate
  25. consonant formants
    •Smaller vocal tract constriction than vowels 

    –Vary by degree of constriction

    •Classified by manner, place, and voicing

    –Manner: Glide, liquid, nasal, stop, fricative, affricate

    –Place: Bilabial, Alveolar, Velar, etc.

    –Voicing: Voiced or voiceless
  26. what consonants are similar to vowels u and i
    • glides
    • w and j

    –Duration of constriction typically shorter than for corresponding vowels

    –May be more extreme, constriction tighter than for vowels

    •Ex: /w/ oral constriction is tighter than for /u/

    •Ex: oral constriction is tighter for /j/ than for /i/

    –Glide into and out of constriction