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A change in matter in which chemical bonds are formed and broken in which produces one or more new substance.
A change in matter in which the appearance may change but no chemicals bonds are broken or made and no new substance is formed.
What are the laws of the Particle Model of Matter?
- 1. All matter is made up of very small particles.
- 2. There are spaces between the particles. The amount of space between particles is different for different states of matter.
- 3. The particles that make up matter are always moving.
- 4. Particles are attracted to one another.
Kinetic Molecular Theory
- - Particles are constantly moving. In liquids and gases, the particles are colliding with each other and the walls of their container. Particles of a solid can only vibrate and are tightly packed. Particles of a liquid are farther apart and can slide against each other. Particles of a gas are even farther apart and can move around quickly.
- - Energy makes particles move and the farther apart they can get.
Changing from a solid to a gas.
Changing from a gas to a solid.
Characteristics of matter that can be observed or measured.
What are the two different types of physical properties? Describe them.
- Qualitative properties: Can be described but not measured
- Quantitative properties: Can be measured numerically
What are the most common qualitative properties?
- Malleability: the ability to be beaten into sheets
- Ductility: the ability to be drawn into wires
- Crystallinity: the shape or appearance of crystals
- Magnetism: the tendency to attract a magnet
- State: solid, liquid or gas
What are the most common quantitative properties?
- Solubility: the ability to dissolve in water
- Conductivity: the ability to conduct electricity or heat
- Viscosity: resistance to flow
- Density: mass to volume ratio
- Melting and freezing point: temperature of melting and freezing
- Boiling and condensing point: temperature of boiling and condensing
A substance made up of only one kind of matter
What are the two diff. kinds of pure substances?
- Element: a pure substance that cannot be broken down or separated into smaller substances.
- Compound: a pure substance composed of at least two elements combined in a specific way.
A British scholar/schoolteacher. He proposed that matter was made up of tiny hard spheres and each element had a different one.
Dalton's Atomic Theory
- - All matter is made up of small particles called atoms.
- - Atoms cannot be created, destroyed, or divided into smaller particles.
- - All atoms of the same element are identical in mass in size, but they are different in mass and size from atoms from other elements.
- - Compounds are created when atoms of different elements link together in definite proportions.
A British physicist who studied electric currents in gas discharge tubes. He determined that the currents were streams of negatively charged particles. He hypothesized that atoms were made up of smaller particles. Thompson proposed a raison bun model of the atom. With electrons embedded in it.
A scientist from New Zealand. He designed an experiment to probe inside of atoms. He eposed a thin sheet of gold to high speed heavy positive particles (called alpha particles), most atoms passed through the sheet, but some of them rebounded. He had discovered the nucleus. A decade later, he discovered there must be two different kinds of atoms inside the nucleus.
He was a Danish physicist who worked with Rutherford. He studied the regions surrounding the nucleus. He proposed that electrons surround the nucleus in specific shells.