SOC 150 Midterm Vocab

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  1. Social Structure
    • (chap 1)
    • the reoccurring patterns or behaviors of social life
  2. Collective Conscience
    • (Chap 1)
    • the shared values of a society
  3. Statuses
    • (Chap 1,4)
    • A position in a social system that can be occupied by an individual
  4. Roles
    • (Chap 4)
    • the sets of expected behaviors associated with particular statuses
  5. Ethnomethodology
    • (chap 4)
    • an approach that examines the methods people use to make sense of their daily activities, emphasizing the ways i which we collectively create social structure in our everyday activities
  6. breaching experiment
    an experiment which seeks to study people's reactions when the norms are violated
  7. micro-level structure
    • (chap 1)
    • a focus on small-scale, usually face to face social interaction
  8. meso-level structure
    • (chap 1)
    • a focus somewhere between very large and very small social phenomena-on organizations or institutions for exaple
  9. macro-level structure
    • (chap 1)
    • a focus on large-scale social systems and processes such as the economy, politics, and population trends.
  10. McDonaldization
    • By Ritzer
    • The effect is to impose standardized, efficient structures on all aspects of our lives
    • by:
    • effiency
    • calculability
    • predictability
    • control

    and example of rational action
  11. Action
    • (chap 4)
    • The ability to operate independent of social constraints
  12. Social Conventions
    • (chap 4)
    • A practice or technique that is widely used in a particular social setting
  13. Traditional Action
    • (chap 4)
    • behavior motivated by custom
  14. C. Wright Mills
    Professor at Columbia University

    He argued that in an effort to think critically about the social world around us, we need to use our sociological imagination to see the connection between our personal experience and the larger forces of history

    asked questions like, who are we? where are we from? how did we get here?

    (our biography depends on the larger forces in society)
  15. August Comte
    (Chap 1)

    The founder of sociology

    "the scientific study of society"

    thought that sociology was the heart of all other diciplines
  16. Karl Marx
    believed that it was primarily the conflicts between classes that drove social change throughout history

    as capitalism progressed, the rich would get richer and the poor would get poorer

    created socialism as a response, where the government directs the use of productive forces
  17. Emile Durkheim
    functionalism-which examines society as a sum of many parts working together (or not) as a well oiled machine

    society is held together by shared cultural values

    also the division of labor
  18. Max Weber
    ideas on power, focused on lifestyle differences among consumers

    identified the 3 types of action and that society is increasingly influenced by rational action
  19. Postmodernity
    • (Chap 1)
    • a historical period beginning in the middle twentieth century characterized by the rise of information-based economics and the fragmentations of political beliefs and ways of knowing
  20. Modernity
    • (chap 1)
    • a historical era beginning in the 1700s characterized by the growth of demoncracy and personal freedom, increased reliance on reason and science to explain the natural and social worlds, and a shift toward an urban industrial economy

    the emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period created the conditions needed for the emergence of sociology
  21. Capitalist
    the exchane of money and services between capital (whose who own the means of production) and labor (those who sell their labor power to capitalist for wages) which is unequal

    • (chap 5)
    • the ideology emphasizes indivualism, the idea that success is based on merit and not on inherited advantages
  22. Sociology
    • (chap 1)
    • the systematic (methodical) study of the relationship between individuals and society
  23. Anomie
    • (chap 1)
    • social normlessness, without moral guidance or standards
  24. Symbolic Interactionist Theory
    • (Chap 1)
    • social theories that focus on hos people use shared symbols and construct society as a results of their everyday interactions
  25. Conflict Theory
    • (chap 1)
    • social theories that focus on issues of contention, power, inequality, highlighting the competition for scarce resources
  26. The Sociological perspective
    • (chap 1)
    • a view of the social world that focuses on discovering and understanding the connections between individuals and the broader social contexts in which they live; what C. Wright Mills called the sociological imagination

    made up of your identity (ethnicity, gender, race, etc) and your social environment (family, neighborhood, country, culture, historical period)
  27. Structural-functionalism
    • (chap 1)
    • theories that focus on consensus and cooperative interaction in social life, emphasizing how different elements that make up a society's structure contribute to its overall operation. ¬†Often referred to simply as "functionalist theories" or "functionalism"
  28. Culture
    • (chap 3)
    • the collection of values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, language, behaviors, and material objects shared by a people and socially transmitted from generation to generation
  29. Applied Research
    • (chap 2)
    • the primary goal of this type of research is to directly address some social problems or need
  30. Hypothesis
    • (chap 2)
    • a statement about the relationship between variable that is to be investigated
  31. Transparency
    • (chap 2)
    • the requirement that researchers explain how they collected and analyzed their evidence and how they reached their conclusions
  32. Public Sociology
    • (chap 2)
    • the effort to bring the findings of both basic and applied sociological research to a broader non-academic audience
  33. Basic Research
    • (chap 2)
    • the primary goal of this type of research is to describe some aspect of society and advance our understanding of it
  34. Experiment
    • (chap 2)
    • a data gathering technique in which the researcher manipulates an independent variable under controlled conditions to determine if change in an independent variable produces change in a dependent variable, thereby establishing a cause and effect relationship
  35. Content Analysis
    • (chap 2)
    • a variety of techniques that enable researcher to systematically summarize and analyze the content of various forms of communication--written, spoken, or pictorial
  36. Interpretive Social Science
    • (chap 2)
    • an approach that focuses on understanding the meaning that people ascribe to their social world
  37. Field Research
    • (chap 2)
    • a data collection technique in which the researcher systematically observes some aspect of social life in its natural setting
  38. Positivist Social Science
    • (chap 1)
    • a belief that accurate knowledge must be based on the scientific method
  39. Independent Variable and Dependent variable
    • (Chap 2)
    • Independent Variable: the entity that is associated with and/or causes the change in the value of the dependent variable

    Dependent Variable: the entity that changes in response to the independent variable
  40. Quantitative and Qualitative
    • (Chap 2)
    • Quantitative: evidence that can be summarized numerically

    Qualitative: any kind of evidence that is not numerical in nature, including evidence gathered from interviews, direct observation, and written or visual documents
  41. Subculture
    • (Chap 3)
    • cultures associated with smaller groups in society that have distinct norms, values, and lifestyles setting them apart from the dominant culture
  42. Dominant Culture
    • (chap 3)
    • a culture that permeates a society and that represents the ideas and practices of those in positions of power
  43. High Culture
    • (Chap 3)
    • cultural forms associated with elites that are widely recognized as valuable and legitimate
  44. Real Culture
    • (Chap 3)
    • what members of a culture actually do, which may or may not reflect the ideal
  45. Ideal Culture
    • (chap 3)
    • what the members of a culture report to be their values, beliefs, and norms
  46. Norms
    • (chap 3)
    • a culture's rules and expectations for "appropriate" behavior
  47. Ideology
    • (Chap 3)
    • a system of meaning that helps define and explain the world and that makes value judgments about that world
  48. Mores
    • (Chap 3)
    • norms that are strictly enforced, with potentially severe penalties for violating them
  49. Countercultures
    • (chap 3)
    • a subculture that champions values and lifestyles distinctly opposed to those of the dominant culture
  50. Informal norms
    Norms which are obvious when violated, but seem to go unnoticed in everyday life. There is no exact or determined definition of right and wrong, even though the expectation may exist in the culture

    • example: breaking a...
    • informal norm-wearing a shirt with a stain
    • formal norm-not wearing a shirt
  51. Cultural relativism
    • (chap 3)
    • the practice of understanding a culture by its own standards
  52. Sapir-whorf hypothesis
    • (chap 3)
    • The idea that because of their different cultural content and structure, languages affect how speakers think and behave
  53. Beliefs
    • (chap 3)
    • the specific convictions or opinions that its people generally accept as being true
  54. Folkways
    • (chap 3)
    • group habits or customs that are common in a given culture
  55. Middle Ages
    • (Chap 1)
    • religious explanations of the natural and social worlds dominated intellectual life

    the landowning aristocracy and clerical elite dominated political life

    the economy rested on a rural, agricultural base
  56. Hawthorne Effect
    • (Chap 2)
    • the fact that human beings will react differently because they know they are in a study
  57. Surveys
    • (Chap 2)
    • a data collection technique that involves asking someone a series of questions
  58. Random Sampling
    • (chap 2)
    • a sample in which every element of the population has an equal sample of being chosen
  59. Correlation
    • (chap 2)
    • a relationship in which change in one variable is connected to change in another variable
  60. Informed consent
    • (chap 2)
    • the principle that subjects in any study must know about the nature of the research project, any potential benefits or risks that they may face, and that they have the right to stop participating at any time, for any reason
  61. Xenophobia
    • (Chap 3)
    • an unreasonable fear or hatred of foreigners or people of a different culture
  62. Ethnocentrism
    • (Chap 3)
    • the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own
  63. Conversation Analysis
    method of analyzing the patterns in face to face conversation that produce the smooth, back and forth turn taking of such exchanges
  64. Social Integration
    The process by which values and social structures bind people together within a society
  65. Power
    • (Chap 5)
    • the ability to bring about an intended outcome, even when opposed by others
  66. Privilege
    • (chap 5)
    • a special advantage or benefit that is not enjoyed by some
  67. Standpoint theory
    • (Chap 5)
    • a theory that questions taken-for-granted assumptions about society by looking at it from multiple viewpoints, especially from the perspective of people in subordinate positions
  68. Stratification Systems
    • (Chap 5)
    • Social structures and cultural norms that create and maintain inequality by ranking people into a hierarchy of groups that receive unequal resources
  69. Discrimination
    • (Chap 5)
    • treating others unequally based on their background or other personal charactertistics
  70. Empowerment
    • (Chap 5)
    • an increase in the capacity of people to bring about an intended outcome
  71. Hegemony
    • (Chap 5)
    • a condition that exists when those in power have successfully spread their ideas and marginalized alternative viewpoints so that their perspectives and interests are accepted widely as being universal and true
  72. Illegitimate Power
    • (Chap 5)
    • a form of authority that relies on force or coercion to generate obedience
  73. Inequality
    • (Chap 5)
    • the unequal distribution of resources among groups of people
  74. Intersectionality Theory
    • (Chap 5)
    • A perspective that highlights the connections and interactions between various forms of inequality, especially race, class, and gender
  75. Legitimate Power
    • (Chap 5)
    • authority that is voluntarily accepted by those who are affected
  76. Matrix Power (of Domination)
    • (Chap 5)
    • The interlocking systems of oppression associated with race, class, and gender
  77. Patriarchy
    • (Chap 5)
    • Male Domination through social institutions and cultural practices
  78. Social Closure
    • (Chap 5)
    • The process whereby a status group maximizes its own advantages by restricting access to rewards only to members of its own group
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SOC 150 Midterm Vocab
2013-06-10 23:53:23
Intro Sociology Andrews Vocab

For the midterm from his Study guide
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