Anthro 1H

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Norrell
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222517
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Anthro 1H
Updated:
2013-06-05 00:26:32
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Physical Anthro final
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physical anthro final
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  1. stages of human evolution
    • Apidium 50-25 mya
    • Proconsol  50-15 mya
    • Ramapithicus  15-5 mya
    • Autrolopithicus  5-1 mya
    •      afarensis (lucy)
    •      robustis  
    •      africanus
    •      habilis
    • Homo erectus  2mya - 500 kya
    • Homo sapiens neadertalensis   500-35 kya
    • Homo sapiens sapiens (modern human)  200kya -present
  2. Apidium
    • 50-25 mya
    • quadroped
    • small rat like, squirel like
    • marble size brain
    • terrestrial mammal, lived in grasslands
    • had advanced olfactory sense, smelling for spoors
    • 25 mya forest succession and more rainfall 
    • through process of adaptive radiation he adapts to new arboreal env.
    • Those with prehansility survived.
    • Develops visual acuity, sight
    •    still predominates in us
    •    3D binocularity, sterioscopic vision (depth perception benefit)
    •    color vision (50 mya)
    •    smooth persuit (focus on moving object)
    • Developed single births
    • Inteligence: memory and quick decision making
    • Physiological changes: pronate wrist, 360 degree forearm movement, power grip
  3. Proconsol
    • 25-15 mya
    • looked like primitive monkey
    • Terrestrial
    • golfball size brain
    • smarter
    • started sharing and developing social structure / social organization
    • Inteligence is what kept him alive
  4. Ramapithicus
    • 15-5 mya
    • primitive ape
    • first found and named in india
    • baseball size brain
  5. Autrolopithicus
    • 5-1 mya
    • fully erect
    • lived communally
    • post cranial 1/3 size of modern human (more ape size)
    • softball size brain
    • sagital crest: ridge bone at middle cranium
    • post orbital constriction
    • lived communally
    • Oldowan, pebble tool industry
    • First found by Raymond Dart
    •    2 ways Astrolopithicus was found
    •       1) S. Africa, industrial revolution, alot of digging for coal at 400 ft under. Strip mining workers found bones, called university and they sent Raymond Dart. People didn't believe human ancestor and called it "darts folly"
    •       2) Later Robert Bloom found 3 more and validated Darts work
    • Bipedal:  found by Mary Leaky, Laetoli footprints
    • Autrolopithicus robustus and habilis found by leaky family at Olduvai Gorge
    • Donald Johansen in Hadar found Lucy: Astrolopithicus Afarensis

    • Swartkrans important S. African site.
    • zygomatics and broad cheekbones
  6. Homo Erectus
    • 2mya- 500kya
    • increase height/ weight and robusticity
    • bigger crania size of grapefruit
    •     nuchal torus at back of skull, projection of bone
    • 1st to leave africa
    • 1st game hunters: planned hunting expeditions and followed herds (probably why they left Africa)
    • 1st to build shelters
    • developed cultural adaptations like clothing made from hides
    • began to speciate because of moving and adapting to diff. env.
    • Domesticated fire
    • domestication of animals started (dogs)
    • culture begins as a result of fire
    • Acheulian tool industry:
    •     biface (hand axe or clever) (africa) had flatter shape then seen in Oldowan cores. used to cut, scrape, pound and dig
    •      Chopper (Asia)
    •     1st time raw materials are transported for long distances. Not discarded like during Oldowan era
    •     Smaller tools: burin

    Eugene dobois discovered H.E in Java

    • Zhoukoudian site: First Chinese H.E
    • largest collection of H.E fossils anywhere in world
    • many tools found at site: choppers, flakes, scrapers, points, burins and awls
    • first evidence of use of fire
  7. Neandertalensis
    • 500-35 kya
    • limited in time and space, mainly europe and middle east
    • bigger brains, Cateloup size
    • browridges arch over the eyes
    • no chin
    • tailored their clothing
    • had advanced language and elaborate culture
    • 1st evidence of spirituality: astrological symbols
    • Aesthetic artifacts: not just for looks, ceremonial objects
    • Burials: polen, flowers, ocher, artifacts, animal bones
    • Cared for the disabled

    Shanidar Cave where burials found, concept of afterlife. grave of a handicap person found. 

    • La Chepelle Aux Saints site: Most famous
    • "Old Man" body flexed position, flint tools and animal bones around body. This site led people to believe that Neadertalensis didn't walk fully erect.

    • Mousterian Tool Industry: larger portions of flake tolls than is found in Archulean
    • Flakes enhanced through Levallois technique
    • tools for skinning, hunding, woodworking and hafting.
    • spears but no long distance tools.
    • Chatelperonian industry: blade tools.
  8. Modern humans
    sapiens sapiens
    • 200 kya to present
    • between grapefruit and canteloup: 1,000-1500cc
    • 1st to have chins
    • entered the americas 13kya following animals
    • 1st social network and possible trade
    • cave art more sophisticated
    • burials more complex with grave goods like tools and animal bones

    • Cro magnon site in France: most famous early modern human find
    • materials here are associated with aurignacian tool industry

    • Many tool industries
    •   microliths: animal teeth modified
    •   grinded stone tools
    •   Burin: very common used as chisel, working wood, bone and antler. drilling holes
    •   solutrean blade
    •   Atlatl
    •   ceramic technology (first found in Japan)

    Settlements and domestication of plants and animals created social organization
  9. Acclimatization
    • not transferred. Body does this during stress
    • adjustment in our physiology as well as short term behavioral adjustment to environmental conditions
    •    caused by stressors
  10. Adaptation
    • genetically transferred trait from adult to child
    • when humans acclimatize they genetically adapt to the env. and their offspring develop adaptations
    •   complextion (skin color)
  11. developemental acclimatization
    irreversible and results from exposure to an environmental challenge during growth and development
  12. High altitude acclimatization
    • stressor: hypoxia (reduced available oxygen)
    • Acclimatization: increased respiratory rate, heart rate and production of red blood cells (these contain hemoglobin that transports oxygen)
  13. Heat and humidity acclimatization
    • increased sweating for cooling
    • vasodilation: capillaries near skin dilate to permit increased blood flow to skin. this happens to radiate heat out of the body through the skin
  14. Cold acclimatization
    • shivering and increased metabolic rate, generate heat in body
    • Vasoconstriction: short term response that restricts heat loss and conserves energy.
    • inuits: intermitten vasodilation and vasoconstriction
  15. Infectious disease acclimatization
    • pathogens: cause disease
    • vectors: carry disease (mosquitos and rats)
    • zoonotic: disease transmitted by animal
  16. Ultra violet radiation acclimatization and adaptation
    • tanning is an acclimatization
    • Ultraviolet radiation poisoning prevented by
    • melanin (pigmentation of skin)
    •    Melanocites: cells that produce the melanin in body
    •    U.V light, sunlight, strengthens bones and teeth:  done through vitamin D synthesis
    • Too much Vit D: hyper vitaminosis
    • Too little: rickets (weak bones)

    Note: too much Vit A, D or E can be bad for you
  17. Allens Rule
    • Extremeties and appendages (arms and legs)
    • cold: shorter, stalkier (adipose)
    • hot: longer and thinner for heat dispersment
  18. bergmans Rule
    • relationship between body mass to volume surface
    • body shorter larger in colder climates (stalkier) and body size longer in and thinner in hotter climates
  19. Glogers Rule
    • fur, feathers, skin, eyes, hair
    • darker in the tropics and lighter in the poles
  20. Endemic
    continuous in population like a cold or flu
  21. pandemic
    epidemic that spreads rapidly everywhere
  22. virulence
    measure of severity of a disease
  23. Acclimatization benefits of facial features
    • nose: short nose, flat nostrils allow more oxygen intake in tropical climate and long skinny nose is a warming chamber in cold climate
    • Eyes: narrow eyes protect eyeball from freezing in cold (small squint) and big eyes are from tropical climate
    • lips: can't find correlation
  24. What constitutes human
    • physiologically
    •    bipedality
    •    brain to body proportion (large heads)
    •    prehansility (humans have precision grip)

    • Behaviorally
    •    social structure organizations
    •    we live in bands which are uniform worldwide
    •    hunting and gathering
    •    sexual division of labor
  25. Absolute dating methods
    Calendrical and radio-metric

    • 1) C-14 
    •     1/2 life: 6000 yrs

    • 2) K-AR Potassium Argon
    •     all ignius rock has this
    •     used mostly by prehistoric geologists
    •     1/2 life:  1.25 billion yrs

    • 3) Dendrochronology (tree ring dating)
    •     most accurate of all dating methods
    •     you need: stable env. (about same rainfall every year and sun exposure. and a long lived species like Bristle Pine Cone
  26. Relative Dating methods
  27. Antidiluvianism
    • Before the flood
    • response of church to dinosours
  28. Stone Ages
    paleolithic (old)

    megalithic (middle: before neolithic during which humans increasingly exploited small animals including fish. increased variety of tools and became somewhat less nomadic

    Neolithic (new): humans began to domesticate plants and animals. became more sedentary not nomadic anymore
  29. protoculture
    culture of apes and cetatians
  30. megafaunal
    • big animals killed off during plasticene
    • herds driven off cliffs to be killed
    • by 10-12 kya many became extinct
  31. Human Life course
    • prenatal phase: conception to birth
    • infancy: period of nursing
    • childhood or juvinile phase: weaning to sexual maturity (puberty)
    • adolencence: puberty to the end of growth
    • adulthood: marked by birth of first child and or compleation of growth
    • menopause: one full yr. after last period
    • post reproductive stage: old age, because people are living longer
  32. Geriatric diseases
    heart disease, cancer, stroke, accidents and chronic obstuctive lung disease

    degenerative disease: atherosclerosis, cancer and hypertension
  33. senescence
    • process of physiological decline
    • aging
  34. pleiotropic genes
    have multiple effects at different times in life span
  35. Problems on global scope
    lack of biodiversity: fewer variations of tuna, butterflies

    famine: we don't have food shortage but no good food distribution

    env. degredation: killing everything. poisoning earth, air water

    Climate change

    biggest problem: Over population
  36. Mother of all problems worldwide
    over population
  37. dental formula
    2:1:2:3
  38. Y-5 and H-4
    Y-5 is human cust pattern

    H-4 is non human
  39. homodonts and heterodonts teeth
    homodonts are non human

    heterodonts are human
  40. Prognathism
    face protruding forward. developed dental formula

    in time face got flatter and no need for wisdom teeth anymore
  41. parabolic dental arcade and u-shaped
    • parabolic is human
    • ushped is ape
  42. diastema
    gap in tooth row where canines were

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