SUR 111 - Test 2
Card Set Information
SUR 111 - Test 2
most common forms of energy
flow of electricity
quality of a substance that resists transfer of electrons and therefore electrical current
direct use of electrical energy to cut, coagulate and weld tissue
type of current that can cause electrocution or cardiac arrest
when is current impeded?
at the point of contact with the tissue
direct application of hot implements to tissue to stop hemorrhage and sterilize wounds
high-frequency energy used to cut and coagulate tissue
actual contact point at the tissue
pad or thin plate placed close to the surgical wound site
patient return electrode
type of current used for monopolar and bipolar circuits
monopolar electrode used primarily for?
what does patient return electrode do?
spreads current at the point where it exits the body, preventing burns
mode in which the electrode is held above the tissue and does not make contact - produced by high-voltage energy
air between electrode and tissue, acting as a conductor
burning with the loss of water content
combination of intermediate frequency and intermediate wave intervals
duration of current flow
mode in which voltage is lower and heat is slower - electrode held in contact with or slightly above tissue
performed on tissue with pulsed or intermittent application of active electrode
fulguration or spray coagulation
use of heated element to occlude small blood vessels
destruction of tissue using radiofrequency energy waves
what is radiofrequency ablation used for?
destruction of tumors and endometrial tissue in GYN surgery
in this type of surgery, hollow organ is filled with fluid and the bipolar probe is used to destroy tissue in the fluid-filled cavity
bipolar radiofrequency ablation
uses high-frequency, bipolar electrosurgery, low voltage, and physical pressure to create a weld in tissue
electrosurgical vessel sealing
inert and nonflammable, but easily ionized
current travels only from ESU generator, through patient and PRE, and back to generator
who is responsible for direct use of active electrodes during surgery?
what is used to clear inside of suction tube of combination suction-coagulation thingamabobs?
water because it is nonconductive - not saline
using a hemostat or other clamp to conduct current from active electrode to tissue
buzzing the hemostat
specific burn hazard of monopolar endoscopic surgery
flow of electricity from one conductive substance to another
automatically stops flow of current when impedance reaches a preset level
return electrode monitoring system
what does smoke plume contain?
95% water, 5% chemicals, blood cells, and intact or fragmented bacteria and viruses
2 methods used to prevent smoke inhalation
in-line room suction systems
commercial smoke evacuation devices
how far away from surgical site must the nozzle tip be when using smoke evacuator in order to be effective?
electricity transformed into mechanical energy generated by high-frequency vibration and forces of friction
is grounding pad required for ultrasonic technology?
negative Batman - electrical current does not pass through the patient
series of needle probes inserted directly into the tumor under direct fluoroscopic imaging
process which uses delicate ophthalmological instrument that uses ultrasonic energy for destruction of cataracts
use of extremely cold instrument or substance to destroy tissue
technique in which a probe is inserted into tumor or tissue mass, high-pressure argon gas is injected into the probe, causing surrounding tissue to freeze
light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
all waves in the laser have exactly same length
waves are lined up so that peaks and troughs are in exactly the same location
chamber in which light is pumped and filled with medium in laser
optical resonant cavity
2 categories of lasers according to duration of output waves
continuous wave lasers
Q-switched lasers (pulsed wave lasers)
main components of laser system
optical resonator (laser head)
control panel and touch screen
component of the laser that supplies energy needed to increase resonance of lasing medium
lasers that produce visible blue-green beam that is absorbed by red-brown pigmented tissue such as hemoglobin
argon gas lasers
how is argon laser most often used?
dermatology - pigmented lesions
ophthalmology - retinal tears, glaucoma, macular degeneration, retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion
what is added to CO2 laser beam to make it visible?
helium-neon laser beam
beam outside visible light range and able to penetrate all tissue types
beam with penetration of 3-7 mm
laser that is less powerful than CO2 or Nd:YAG but capable of producing minute beam well suited to microscopic surgery
laser that produces cool beam by stripping electrons from atoms of medium in the chamber
beam formed when fluorescent liquid or other dyes are exposed to argon laser light
tunable dye laser
laser classification in which permanent eye damage is caused if viewed directly or if viewed indirectly by reflection
laser classification in which severe eye injury is caused when viewed directly or by reflection
laser classification in which eye injury is not caused if viewed momentarily but present a hazard if viewed with collecting optics
laser classification in which radiation is emitted in visible range of electromagnetic spectrum
laser classification which is not hazardous for continuous viewing