SUR 111 - Test 2

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Author:
jb124
ID:
222561
Filename:
SUR 111 - Test 2
Updated:
2013-06-05 13:20:42
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energy
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Description:
energy sources
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  1. most common forms of energy
    • electrical
    • radiofrequency
    • kinetic
    • sound
    • thermal
    • laser
  2. flow of electricity
    current
  3. quality of a substance that resists transfer of electrons and therefore electrical current
    nonconductive
  4. direct use of electrical energy to cut, coagulate and weld tissue
    electrosurgery
  5. type of current that can cause electrocution or cardiac arrest
    low-frequency current
  6. when is current impeded?
    at the point of contact with the tissue
  7. direct application of hot implements to tissue to stop hemorrhage and sterilize wounds
    cauterization
  8. high-frequency energy used to cut and coagulate tissue
    electrosurgery
  9. actual contact point at the tissue
    active electrode
  10. pad or thin plate placed close to the surgical wound site
    patient return electrode
  11. type of current used for monopolar and bipolar circuits
    alternating current
  12. monopolar electrode used primarily for?
    • cutting
    • coagulation
    • desiccation
  13. what does patient return electrode do?
    spreads current at the point where it exits the body, preventing burns
  14. mode in which the electrode is held above the tissue and does not make contact - produced by high-voltage energy
    cutting mode
  15. air between electrode and tissue, acting as a conductor
    spark gap
  16. burning with the loss of water content
    desiccation
  17. combination of intermediate frequency and intermediate wave intervals
    blended mode
  18. duration of current flow
    duty cycle
  19. mode in which voltage is lower and heat is slower - electrode held in contact with or slightly above tissue
    coagulation
  20. performed on tissue with pulsed or intermittent application of active electrode
    fulguration or spray coagulation
  21. use of heated element to occlude small blood vessels
    electrocautery
  22. destruction of tissue using radiofrequency energy waves
    radiofrequency ablation
  23. what is radiofrequency ablation used for?
    destruction of tumors and endometrial tissue in GYN surgery
  24. in this type of surgery, hollow organ is filled with fluid and the bipolar probe is used to destroy tissue in the fluid-filled cavity
    bipolar radiofrequency ablation
  25. uses high-frequency, bipolar electrosurgery, low voltage, and physical pressure to create a weld in tissue
    electrosurgical vessel sealing
  26. inert and nonflammable, but easily ionized
    argon
  27. current travels only from ESU generator, through patient and PRE, and back to generator
    isolated circuit
  28. who is responsible for direct use of active electrodes during surgery?
    surgeon
  29. welded tissue
    coagulum
  30. what is used to clear inside of suction tube of combination suction-coagulation thingamabobs?
    water because it is nonconductive - not saline
  31. using a hemostat or other clamp to conduct current from active electrode to tissue
    buzzing the hemostat
  32. specific burn hazard of monopolar endoscopic surgery
    capacitive coupling
  33. flow of electricity from one conductive substance to another
    direct coupling
  34. automatically stops flow of current when impedance reaches a preset level
    return electrode monitoring system
  35. toxic smoke
    smoke plume
  36. what does smoke plume contain?
    95% water, 5% chemicals, blood cells, and intact or fragmented bacteria and viruses
  37. 2 methods used to prevent smoke inhalation
    • in-line room suction systems
    • commercial smoke evacuation devices
  38. how far away from surgical site must the nozzle tip be when using smoke evacuator in order to be effective?
    2 inches
  39. electricity transformed into mechanical energy generated by high-frequency vibration and forces of friction
    ultrasonic energy
  40. is grounding pad required for ultrasonic technology?
    negative Batman - electrical current does not pass through the patient
  41. series of needle probes inserted directly into the tumor under direct fluoroscopic imaging
    tumor ablation
  42. process which uses delicate ophthalmological instrument that uses ultrasonic energy for destruction of cataracts
    phacoemulsification
  43. use of extremely cold instrument or substance to destroy tissue
    cryosurgery
  44. technique in which a probe is inserted into tumor or tissue mass, high-pressure argon gas is injected into the probe, causing surrounding tissue to freeze
    cryoablation
  45. light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
    laser
  46. all waves in the laser have exactly same length
    monochromatic
  47. waves are lined up so that peaks and troughs are in exactly the same location
    coherency
  48. chamber in which light is pumped and filled with medium in laser
    optical resonant cavity
  49. 2 categories of lasers according to duration of output waves
    • continuous wave lasers
    • Q-switched lasers (pulsed wave lasers)
  50. main components of laser system
    • optical resonator (laser head)
    • excitation source
    • delivery system
    • control panel and touch screen
    • accessory equipment
  51. component of the laser that supplies energy needed to increase resonance of lasing medium
    excitation source
  52. lasers that produce visible blue-green beam that is absorbed by red-brown pigmented tissue such as hemoglobin
    argon gas lasers
  53. how is argon laser most often used?
    • dermatology - pigmented lesions
    • ophthalmology - retinal tears, glaucoma, macular degeneration, retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion
  54. what is added to CO2 laser beam to make it visible?
    helium-neon laser beam
  55. beam outside visible light range and able to penetrate all tissue types
    holmium:YAG laser
  56. beam with penetration of 3-7 mm
    neodymium:YAG
  57. laser that is less powerful than CO2 or Nd:YAG but capable of producing minute beam well suited to microscopic surgery
    potassium-titanyl-phosphate
  58. laser that produces cool beam by stripping electrons from atoms of medium in the chamber
    excimer laser
  59. beam formed when fluorescent liquid or other dyes are exposed to argon laser light
    tunable dye laser
  60. laser classification in which permanent eye damage is caused if viewed directly or if viewed indirectly by reflection
    class 4
  61. laser classification in which severe eye injury is caused when viewed directly or by reflection
    class 3b
  62. laser classification in which eye injury is not caused if viewed momentarily but present a hazard if viewed with collecting optics
    class 3a
  63. laser classification in which radiation is emitted in visible range of electromagnetic spectrum
    class 2
  64. laser classification which is not hazardous for continuous viewing
    class 1

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