Foundations of Operations
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- how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative
- to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations
- through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations
- in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolution. ADP 3-0
- operational environment
- friendly force
Levels of War
- Startegic (DIME)
- Operational (PMESII-PT)
- Tactical (METT-TC)
Operational Environment Varivables (PMESII-PT)
- Physical Environment
Operational Process (P2EA)
- Planning (MDMP)
- Assess (Continuous)
Weather Variables (WATCH-VP)
- Atmospheric Pressure
- Cloud Cover
Terrain Variables (OAKOC)
- Observation and Fields of fire
- Avenues of approach
- Key terrain
- Obstacles and movement
- Cover and concealment
Civil Considerations (ASCOPE)
Six Geographical Unified Combatant Commands
Three Functional Unified Commands
- COCOM - Combatant Command
- OPCON - Operational Control
- TACON - Tactical Control
- Support - Has four levels General, Mutual, Direct, Close
Three National Strategies
Four Foundations of ULO (MAID)
- Mission Command (the exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commander’s intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations.)
- Army Core Competencies (Combined Arms Maneuver;Wide Area Security)
- Initiative (Army forces degrade the enemy’s ability to function as a coherent force)
- Decisive Action (The simultaneous combination of offensive, defensive, and stability operations/defense support of civil authorities)
Two Army Core Competencies
- Combined Arms Maneuver: the application of the elements of combat power in unified action to defeat enemy ground forces; to seize, occupy, and defend land areas; and to achieve physical, temporal, and psychological advantages over the enemy to seize and exploit the initiative.
- Wide Area Security: the application of the elements of combat power in unified action to protect populations, forces, infrastructure, and activities
Name the Six Warfighting Functions
- mission command
- movement and maneuver
Combat power has eight elements:
- mission command
- movement and maneuver
What components are in the commander's Intent
- Expanded Purpose
- Key Tasks
- End State
- (ADRP 5-0, Para 2-93)
Campaign vs Operation
Strategic and Operational Objectives vs Tactical Actions
Tenets of ULO (FILADS)
- Flexibility: CDR's employ a versatile mix of cap/formations/equip
- Integration: Exercising IIA with UA partners
- Lethality: Physical destruction; org, train, equip, and employ force
- Adaptability: Critical thought, acceptable risk, continuously adjust
- Depth: The extension of op's in time, space, and purpose
- Synchronization: The arrangement of military action in T/S/P
three frameworks for articulating CONOPS
- Deep – Close – Security
- Decisive – Shaping – Sustaining
- Main and Supporting Effort (can be used inside the other two)
What is Unified Action?
Synchronization, coordination, or integration of the activities of governmental and non-governmental entities with military operations to achieve unity of effort
What is the Army’s contribution to Unified Action?
Unified Land Operations (ULO)
______ _____ is trying to achieve Unity of Effort through synchronization, coordination or integration of governmental and non-governmental agencies.
T/F Doctrine are guidelines not a set of fixed rules.
What is the method by which Army commanders exercise Mission Command?
Which of the following is not a part of Strategic context: Operational Environment, Civilian Considerations, Character of friendly forces and Character of the threat
Name the 3 levels of war.
Strategic, Operational and Tactical
T/F PMESII-PT is a variable used at the operational level of war where as METT-TC is used at the strategic level.
What does P2EA stand for and what is it used for?
Plan, Prepare, Execute and Assess; Operations Process
What do tactical variables consist of?
METT-TC Mission, Enemy, Terrain, Troops, Time, Civilian Considerations
What builds situational understanding of the OE and is used to analyze and describe the OE?
PMESII-PT Political, Military, Economic, Social, Intelligence, Infrastructure, Physical Environment and Time
What are the Army’s 2 core competencies?
Combined Arms Maneuver, Wide Area Security
Which of the following are used for CONUS and for OCONUS operations? Stability Ops and DSCA Ops
Stability – OCONUS/ DSCA- CONUS
What is the exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commander’s intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations?
The purpose of this is to deny the enemy positions of advantage and consolidate gains IOT retain the initiative.
Wide Area Security
T/F A campaign is a military action, consisting of two of more related tactical actions, designed to achieve a strategic objective, in whole or in part.
Is tactical action lethal or non-lethal?
The extension of Ops in time space and purpose is?
Exercising IIA with UA partners is?
The arrangement of military action in T/S/P is?
What framework involves efforts to have immediate effects with committed friendly forces?
What operation is at any echelon that creates and preserves conditions for the success of a decisive operation?
What efforts consist of designated supporting units with missions that support the success of the main effort?
What is the Function of Targeting?
Provides assistance, advice, and recommendations to the commander and staff on all matters relative to the employment of target acquisition assets and the Army’s targeting methodology
Steps of IPB
- 1. Define the Operational Environment
- 2. Describe the Environmental Effects on Operations
- 3. Evaluate the Threat
- 4. Determine Threat COA’s
Purpose of Targeting
provide the commander with a methodology linking objectives with effects
Four Principles of Targeting
- 1.achieving the commander’s objectives
- 2.creation of specific desired effects
- 3.command function
- 4.achieve effects in a systematic manner
- (D3A)Decide Detect Deliver Assess
- (F3EAD) Find, Fix, Finish, Exploit, Analyze, and Diseminate
- (F2T2EA) Find, Fix, Track, Target, Engage, and Assess
selecting targets and matching the appropriate response
DELIBERATE and DYNAMIC
- High Payoff Target List (HPTL) prioritized
- Target Selection Standards (TSS) Criteria before attacking
- Attack Guidance Matrix (AGM) when and how to engage
- Target Synchronization Matrix (TSM) tool to prioritize HPTs and synchronize detect, deliver, and assess functions and assets.
Operational Environment Definition
A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of military forces and bear on the decisions of the unit commander.
Measure of Effectiveness - Is our targeting having the desired effects?
Measure of Performance - Are we hitting the target?
Vetting and Validating
- Vetting - Accuacy of intel on tagets
- Validating - Do the vetted targets meet the commanders guidance?
Steps of MDMP
- 1. Receipt of Mission
- 2. Mission Analysis
- 3. COA Development
- 4. COA Analysis
- 5. COA Comparison
- 6. COA Approval
- 7. Orders Production
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