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Lesson 7 . Using what you have learned about B.F. Skinner's schedules of reinforcement, design a reinforcement schedule for a student (real or made-up). Explain the student's current behavior and then explain how you could use the schedule of reinforcement to change that behavior
- B.F. Skinner schedule of reinforcement is useful in a classroom where there maybe behaviorial problems. The classroom or body of students may be to large or simply at times disrubtive. In a normal settings children will act out or misbehave. A normal schedule for this misbehavior can be found at certain times of day. Right before lunch children become restless or build up anxiety in, anticipation of a break. Here it is the environment or external stimuli that is responsible for the responses from the classroom. Instead of waiting for lunch to begin say at 12 noon students get a break right before 12, at 11.45. They get to walk around talk about their lesson almost recest but not quite. Instead of everyone being restless they are less worried about the upcoming event which is lunch at noon. If this is done at different intervals before lunch it will alievate and reinforce students to not becoming complaintive or restless. This will also prevent students behavior from becoming unruly which can lead to other behavior problems. I think when I was a student our teacher would turn the light out during this time. She did this to rienforce the quiet time when everyone seem restless. Our particular class was always disrubtive at lunch we never got a green flag which was reinforcement to behave during lunch.
2. Describe 'continuous' and 'intermittent' reinforcement and the importance of each in classroom management skills as described in the online lesson.
Continuous reinforcement is not popular with teaches or instructors. When this type of reinforcement is used its probably the last source. When a teacher is distracted from a lesson the issue has to be addressed. This may be the time for a one on one with student or students to talk about the problem.
- Intermittent reinforcement is going to be expected in a normal setting with children. An instructor must learn to be patient and if there are behavorial problems understand they are sometimes expected. A normal response from teacher should be expected at certain times in the classroom. If the class gets loud in the mourning when the teacher comes in students "take your seats."
- This is later done maybe an hour and a half later if students are acting out or not focus on lesson "Class pay attention"
1. List at least three types of exceptional learners covered in the online lesson and the textbook in Cluster 4. Include a least one idea on how you would help a student learner of each exception to succeed in your classroom.
- Mental Retardation (MR). A number of factors affect a student who is diagnosed with mental retardation
- It can be inherited from parents making it a genetic factor.
- 1. Down Syndrome
- 2. Fragile X syndrome
- Brain Damage; can also render a person mentally deficient. Drugs during pregnancy can also cause a child to be mentally deficient.
- Emotional and behavior disorders: this can cause learning problems as much as any other for the exceptional learners. If these emotions or behaviors go unchecked a student may suffer for an undetermined extended amount of time. A less serious problem may become a very serious problem.
- Classrooms should always create an opportunity for students to learn. Regardless of circumstances a classroom must be inclusive. Including all students who wish to lean.
Describe the 3 criteria that characteristic gifted children as described in the online lesson.
Some of the characteristics of gifted children are mastering their domain. Gifted children seem to learn without much effort on either their part or the teacher. Gifted children often make their own discoveries. Although sometime disruptive they should be constantly challenged to stay focus on their lesson. I feel gifted students need discipline and should be encourage to incorporate their talents in the classroom.
Define 'chunking' and 'mnemonics' and explain how each of these strategies contribute to 'short term' memory
- Miller began chunking information together to try and determine if the brain could expand the number of items it could remember at one time (Woofolk, 2008).. The strategie behind 'chunking' items is to help memorizes more of them. We can add more to short-memory if items are grouped under similiar names ; Abbreviations , root words, pre-fixes etc. 'Chunking' helps to store more items in short-term memory.
- Mnemonics are appreviations usually for an order, or plan mostly for formula's order of operation. STOP - Silly-T- opposite- positive. Mneumonics are very helpful with formula's for solving math problems. Mnemonics uses simple to help with the complicated operations. Students using this strategie will find it very useful in memorizing elaborate theories, Frued, even Skinner.
List and explain the knowledge factors in metacognition according to textbookk
Declarative knowledge- Knowledge of facts based strictly on what is known about the subject area
Procedural knowledge- The how to of knowledge or the order of operation. where to begin how to begin and what are the steps to complete at task.
Conditional Knowledge- Conditional knowledge is knowing when and how to apply either declaritive knowledge or procedural knowledge.
Provide at least one action word for each of the six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy shown below. Describe each level as it would apply to be used to plan instruction. Describe how the action word selected will allow you to observe and measure results. Make the levels relate to the grade level and concepts you plan to teach.
- Knowledge - Facts based on subject area state facts concerning the prerquisites of the subject biology including human anatomy. Text book reading should have facts about biology covering the subject of Anatomy. Facts should be current and updated for accuracy. .The lesson is how to maintaining a healthy heart.
- Measure; Give post test after studing terms and materials on biology human anatomy lesson.
- Comprehension-For clarity of subject research jounals, magazine articles, internet reliable online sources conscerning the study of biology human anatomy "heart health'. Ways to stay healthy such as diet fitness routines, sleep, physicals conducted by doctors.
- Measure Q & A discussion on most proven or highly recommended routines.
- Application -How to apply knowledge Make a consise report on the study of anatomy 'Main factor's contributing to a healthy heart.
- Measure: Write a one and half page on findings critical to maintaining a healthy heart.Analysis - Research the key elements for maintaining a healthy heart weight, heart rate checking pulse. High risk factors for bad heart conditons.
- Measure: test on biology human anatomy. 20 questions conserning symptoms of heart problems and recommended treatement.Synthesis -regrouping to a whole Initiate a healthy heart program.
- Measure: Create a chart for daily exersizes diet maitaining health heart program.Evaluation- Reflection advocate your support of a healthy heart program.
- Measure: Class discussion on biology human anatomy. presentation of best findings for healthy heart program..
List the steps of Madeline Hunters' Essential Elements of Instruction (EEI) and describe how each step is used to fulfill a lesson plan of instruction.
- Anticipitory set - Get the Attention
- Objective- What is the learning outcome
- input- what is to be taught instructions
- modeling- demonstrate how to look-see
- Check for - Understanding did students grasp
- Guided practice chances to work problems
- Closure-- Summerize
- Indendent practice-homework
Summarize the steps of the ARCS Model of Motivation. Explain how each of these conditions contributes to a student's motivation to learn.
- Attention most models of instruction or motivation begin with attention-A – Attention For students to learn, must be pay attention.
- R – Relevance Must be relevant. Engaged if meaningful.
- C – ConfidenceInspire students to and want to succeed.
- S – Satisfaction Meeting (or exceeding) the student’s expectations for learning.
Describe the components of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and how knowing this information assists in student motivation.
- 1. Basic needs food and shelter
- 2. Safety safe environment
- 3. Friendship
- 4. Success and Esteem
- 5. Self-actualization