bio exam 1

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  1. carolus linnaeus
    father of modern taxonomy
  2. binomial nomenclature
    identifying each organism by their genus and species. Homo sapiens (scientific name) homo is genus and sapiens is species
  3. what are the taxa
    • kingdom
    • phylum
    • class
    • order
    • family
    • genus
    •     species
  4. 2 main types of cells
    • prokaryotic
    • eukaryotic
  5. prokaryotic
    primitive, lack membrane-bound internal organelles
  6. eukaryotic
    true nucleus, membrane-bound organelles
  7. 3 cell types by number
    • unicellular
    • colonial
    • multicellular
  8. nutrition
    • autotrophic: source of carbon is simple such as carbon dioxide (plants)
    • heterotrophic: source of carbon is complex such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids or nucleic acids
  9. 3 domains
    • archaea
    • bacteria
    • eukarya
  10. archaea
    adapted to harsh environments; prokaryotic; unicellular or colonial, heterotrophic
  11. bacteria
    ubiquitous- prokaryotic; they are everywhere. can be unicellular or multi cellular and heterotrophic or autotrophic
  12. eukarya
    • everyone else; eukaryotic, divided into 4 kingdoms
    • 1. protists: algae, seaweeds, protozoa
    • 2. fungi: mushrooms, mildews, yeasts
    • 3. Plants: liverworts, ferns, gymnosperms (conifers), angiosperms (flowering plants)
    • 4. Animals: sponges, worms, jellyfish, echinoderms
  13. natural selection
    theory proposed by Darwin to explain how evolution occurred.  variation between species, competition for limited resources, different rates of survival and reproduction
  14. scientific method
    • 1. observation
    • 2. statement of the problem and hypothesis formation
    • 3. experiment
    • 3a.   control and experimental group
    • 4. collection of data
    • 5. analysis of results
    • 6. conclusion; reject or accept hypothesis
    • 7. communication of findings
  15. emergent properties
    special features or properties that result from a systems' particular organization, do not exist without the organization
  16. 6 characteristics of life
    • 1. organisms are highly structured
    • 2. organisms can take in, transform, and use energy
    • 3. organisms respond to stimuli
    • 4. organisms maintain homeostasis
    • 5. organisms reproduce and develop
    • 6. organisms evolve; have adaptations
  17. important inorganic substances
    water, minerals, salt
  18. important organic substances
    carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
  19. cell theory
    • all living things are composed of cells
    • they may be unicellular, colonial, or multicellular
    • they may be prokaryotic or eukaryotic
  20. all organisms demonstrate close connections between
    form (anatomy) and function (physiology)
  21. organisms interact with their environments
    • ecology: the branch of biology dealing with the relationships between organisms and their environments.
    • *energy flows through ecosystems while nutrients cycle
  22. element
    a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means
  23. matter
    has mass and takes up space
  24. mass
    mass: measure of resistance to change in velocity
  25. 4 elements that make up 96% living organisms
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorous
    • Sulfur
  26. carbon, Hydrogen, and Water
    found in all organic molecules
  27. sub atomic particles
    • neutron: neutral in the Nucleus 1 amu
    • proton: positive in the nucleus 1 amu
    • Electron: negative orbitals or shells, 1/1836 amu
  28. atomic number
    number of protons
  29. atomic mass
    number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  30. isotopes
    same number of protons and electrons, different number of neutrons
  31. molecule
    2 or more elements chemically combined and held together by bonds
  32. compound
    made of molecules with 2 or more elements
  33. ionic bond
    atoms transfer and gain or lose electrons to form ions (have a charge)
  34. covalent bond
    2 or more atoms share electrons
  35. polar covalent bond
    atoms share electrons unequally
  36. octet rule
    outer shell holds 8 electrons to be stable
  37. energy shells
    • 1. is K holds max of 2 electrons
    • 2. L max 8
    • 3. M max 8
  38. hydrogen bond
    weak force of attraction between the slightly positive charge of the hydrogen of one molecule and the slightly negatively charged region of another molecule occurs between adjacent water molecules
  39. 6 properties of water
    • 1. cohesive: attracted to other water molecules. contributes to its high surface tension
    • 2. adhesive: attracted to other charged substances
    • 3. high specific heat: takes a lot of energy to heat or cool water
    • 4. high heat of vaporization: amount of energy to turn water to gas
    • 5. more dense as a liquid then a solid: (ice is less dense as water)
    • 6. excellent solvent: good at dissolving stuff
  40. acid
    substance that donates hydrogen ions in a chemical reaction
  41. base
    substance that donates hydroxide ions in a chemical reaction
  42. neutral solutions
    have the same concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide ions; neither acids nor bases (buffers)
  43. pH scale
    • below 7 acidic
    • 7 neutral
    • above 7 basic
  44. pH of common substances
    • lemon juice 2
    • tomato juice 4
    • distilled water 7
    • sea water 8.2
    • milk of magnesia 10
    • bleach 12
  45. chemical reaction
    process leading to changes in matter

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bio exam 1
2013-06-05 20:10:54

bio exam 1
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