bio exam 1 chap 3

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bio exam 1 chap 3
2013-06-05 16:46:14
bio exam

organic chemistry
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  1. 4 classes of biomolecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)
  2. biomolecules contain carbon
    properties of biomolecules
    • 1. each carbon atoms forms 4 covalent bonds
    • 2. carbon may bond to other carbon atoms to form long chains (hydrocarbons-octane)
    • 3. carbon skeletons of organic molecules vary in length
    • 4. carbon atoms on the skeleton may be single or double covalent bonds
    • 5. carbon skeletons arranged in rings (Cyclohexane)
  3. Isomers
    molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures
  4. functional groups
    assemblage of atoms that forms the chemically reactive part of an organic molecule
  5. examples of functional groups
    • hydroxyl: OH- alcohols; end in ol
    • carboxyl: COOH- amino acids, nucleic acids
    • amino: NH2-amino acids
    • Phosphate: PO4  makes ATP, nucleic acids
  6. monomers
    basic building  blocks for organic molecules
  7. monomers and polymers of different categories
    nucleic acids
    • carbs: glucose; monosaccharide (simple sugar); polysaccharide (long chains of monosaccharides)
    • lipids: glycerol and fatty acids; fat
    • proteins: amino acids; polypeptide
    • nucleic acids: nucleotide; DNA, RNA
  8. dehydration reaction
    reaction that links monomers together by removing water to form polymers
  9. hydrolysis reaction
    breaks polymers apart by bringing water back in
  10. what is required for hydrolysis and dehydration reactions?
    • catalyst; an enzyme
    • energy
    • catalysts are not used up in the reaction and do not change the reaction. they are words that end in ase. sucrase breaks down sucrose. lipase breaks down lipose.
  11. carbohydrates
    • structure is CH2O
    • monomer is glucose
    • monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide
    • polymer is polysaccharide starch
    • words that end in ose
    • monosaccharides are main fuel for cellular respiration; provides energy to cell
  12. lipids
    • lipids include all fats (long term NRG storage animals), oils (long term NRG storage plants), waxes (protection), phospholipids and steroids (plasma membrane)
    • nonpolar molecules insoluable in water
    • monomer is glycerol
    • categories
    • trygyceride: fats and fatty acids. saturated if carbon chain is single bonds, unsaturated if carbon chain has double bonds
    • phospholipids: major part of cell membrane
  13. proteins
    • long chains of amino acids
    • monomer is amino acids (amino and carboxyl group)
    • words that end in "ine"
    • 4 levels of protein structure
    • primary: sequence of amino acids
    • secondary: alpha helix coiling due to hydrogen bonding
    • tertiary: 3D shape of protein, due to covalent bonds between non-adjacent amino acids
    • quaternary: proteins consist of 2 or more polypeptide chains
    • cannot function properly if not folded into proper shape. hydrogen bonding holds it in its shape
  14. nucleic acids
    • structure: long chains of nucleotides with a helical shape
    • 2 types: DNA and RNA
    • DNA and RNA differences
    • 1. DNA contains genetic info, RNA translate that info into a product
    • 2. DNA double helix, RNA single helix
    • 3. DNA has deoxyribose, RNA ribose
  15. nitrogenous bases
    • in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
    • in RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
  16. ATP
    • "energy currency" of the cell
    • storage molecule for energy.
    • extract energy by breaking ATP down to ADP and P