Geo 143: FERTILITY TRENDS AND FAMILY PLANNING POLICIES IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD
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Currently, which regions and countries in the global South have the lowest and which have the highest TFR?
- 1. Taiwan
- 2. Singapore
- 3. South Korea
- 1. Niger
- 2. Somalia
- 3. Dem. Rep of Congo
What have been the trends in fertility during the past 50 years in different parts of the less developed world?
Which regions/countries in the Global South experienced the most drastic decline in fertility during the past 50 years?
- 1. Egypt
- 2. Mexico
- 3. China
What have been the determinants of fertility decline?
- 1. Economic development and urbanization
- 2. Improvement in child health and survival
- 3. Increase in educational level, especially women
- 4. Change in and impact of population policies family planning policies
Which countries have a high incidence of female feticide/infanticide and how can we explain this practice?
Despite being outlawed the practice of feticide continues. How can we explain it?
- -ultrasound scans allowed people to abort females
- -there is still a strong preference for sons over daughters (history)
- -social discrimination against women
- -men get better jobs, can become "more" in society
What are the factors and conditions that help account for high fertility in the less developed world?
- 1. Economic factors
- 2. Demographic factors
- 3. Cultural/social values and norms
- -Children as a measure of value
- -Desire for sons
- -Patriarchy:gender inequality
- -early and almost universal marriage
- 4. Low contraceptive prevalence
What are the social and cultural processes that Jordan argues influence Nigerians’ experiences of fertility decline?
- 1. Kinship
- 2. Patronage
- 3. Access to education
- 4. Failed economy
- 5. Personal harsdiphs
What are the consequences of unequal gender relations for fertility decisions and women’s reproductive health and rights?
What are the major components of family planning?
- 1. Advertising campaigns promoting smaller families
- 2. Promotion and distribution of contraceptives
- 3. Legalization of abortion
- 4. Demographic and sex education in schools
- 5. Later marriage
- 6. Spacing births
What are the most prevalent types of contraceptives used?
- 1. Not using a method
- 2. female sterilization
- 3. IUD
What do fertility targets mean?
What are some of the problems with family planning in developing countries? (see also video clip“Something like a war” and Sen reading)
- 1. Poverty
- 2. Illiteracy
- 3. Poor quality care
- 4. Lack of Human rights
What does A. Sen has to say about reproductive coercion and freedom?
- -criticizes the use of coercion to reduce fertility rates
- -reflects a lack of social freedom
- -can lead to infant mortality
- -coercive mechanisms may have an insignificant impact on fertility rates
What are the distinct characteristics of China’s family planning policy and what have been some of the internal concerns about the one-child policy?
- -one-child per couple
- -mass sterilization
- -incentives: food, housing, health care
- -disincentives: financial penalties, demotion
- -internal concerns: peasants need children, brutality, physical and psychological suffering
What has been china's one child policy impact on fertility levels, sex-selection, and how has the international community reacted to China’s policy (see also “Gold Babies” article)
- -decline in fertility levels
- -800,000 fewer girls being born per year than normal sex ratio
- -international population agencies downplay it and anti-abortion forces in the US
What is distinct about the impact of Thailand’s family planning program and its reception?
- -no quantitative fertility targets
- -modern contraceptive use
- -High degree of acceptance of family planning in rural and urban areas
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