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What have been the reasons for the dramatic decline in fertility? (see also example of Italy in the video Six Billion and Beyond and New York Times Magazine article “No Babies?”)
- -educated women
- -better healthcare
How have European governments responded to the decline in fertility?
- -encourage women to have more children
- -improve gender equality in work force
- -provide money paternity
What are the different types of pro-natalist policies introduced by different European countries in response to fertility decline?
- 1. Measures that make it more difficult to use contraceptives or resort to abortion (Romania 1960s-80s)
- 2. Incentives for couples to have more than 1 child (E and W Europe)
Specifically what measures have been taken to increase fertility? (see also McIntosh article on European Population policy)
- 1. Romania
- -Target: TFR to 4 children per woman
- -imprison doctors who perform abortions
- -1 year prison for women
- -childless couples taxed
- 2. Most Eastern European countries
- -incentives for couples to have more than 1 child
- -parental leave(paid)
- -Austria: Maternity leave paid with benefits, Paternity leave, child/family allowance
What has been the effectiveness/impact of pro-natalist policies?
- 1. Incentives have not reduced fertility further but have not raised it either
- 2. Incentives have slowed down fertility decline and improved health and welfare of parents and their children
What have been the reasons/justifications for the introduction of pro-natalist policies? (see also article on Fertility and the State)
- 1. Aging population and its impact on welfare state
- 2. Impact on labor market
- 3. Impact on nation's position as a world or regional power
- 4. Impact on nation's cultural identity
What do critics say about pro-natalist policies?
- 1. Feminist critique
- -need to guarantee women's reproductive choice/rights
- 2. Need for a global perspective on fertility
What are the arguments advanced in the article “Fertility and the State” regarding the role of the state infertility promotion and fertility reduction?