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What are the causes of the massive rural to urban migration in countries of the less developed world?
- 1. Rural-urban disparities in
- -distribution of economic activities
- -job opportunities
- -levels of well-being
- 2. Perception of job opportunities and prospects of a better life in urban areas
- 3. Armed conflict and changing environmental conditions
What are the negative consequences of massive rural to urban migration in countries of the less developed world? (See also article on poor migrants in urban areas)
- -high levels of unemployment
- -insufficient clean water, sewer systems, and sanitation facilities
- -traffic congestion
- -air pollution
What government policies have been introduced to control rural to urban migration in countries of the less developed world?
- 1. Reduce/contain urban growth and rural to urban migration
- -restricting/controlling in-migration to cities(China-household registration system)
- 2. Redistribution of population to peripheral regions(Transmigration program in Indonesia)
- 3. Creation of new growth centers
- -decentralization of government jobs to smaller cities
- -fostering private investment in smaller cities
- -relocation of national capitals
- 4. Rural development programs to create jobs and improve living conditions (china 60s, 70s)
What is a kampung?
small enclaves of entangled social relations, based on ethnic origin and mutual protection
What does AbdouMaliq Simone have to say about the kampung life and governance in Jakarta,Indonesia?
- -there is no planning
- -government concerned with private interests