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What have been the changes in national origin of immigrants to the US since the early 20th century?
- 1. Increasing volume of immigration since 1980s
- 2. Shift in primary sending countries
- -Latin America and Asia dominate since 1970s
- 3. Undocumented immigration increase since late 1960s
Which federal laws were introduced to control undocumented immigration and what have been the specific measures that were introduced?
- 1. 1986 IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL ACT
- -reverse trend of increasing undocumented immigrants
- 2. 1996 IMMIGRATION ACT
- -makes asylum applications more difficult
- -enhanced border control
- 3. 1996 WELFARE REFORM ACT
- -illegals are not eligible for benefits
- 4. 2001 Patriot Act
- -deportation based on suspicion
- 5. 2006 SECURE FENCE ACT
How effective have federal immigration laws and policies been in controlling undocumented immigration?
Not so much
What were the provisions of the Immigration Reform and Control Act?
- 1. Employer sanctions - $250 - $10,000
- 2. Legalization of illegal aliens
- 3. Temporary employment of foreign agricultural workers
What are the provisions in the Secure Fence Act and what have been the responses?
- 1. 700 miles of 2 layer reinforced border fence and additional physical barriers
- 2. Systematic border surveillance through lighting, cameras, ground-based sensors, and satellites
What are the dominant discourses about the impacts of immigration (legal and undocumented) on the US security, economy, welfare state and culture?
- 1. Security
- -immigrants as a security threat
- -immigrants threat to national security
- -immigrants are responsible for increase in crime, feel less secure
- 2. Economic
- -Immigrants have negative effect on employment and wage prospects of US residents
- -impact on state resources
- 3. Culture
- -Non-European immigrants are a threat to American standards and values(dilute american culture)
- -US is a nation of immigrants
In how far are these arguments substantiated by empirical evidence?
- -Most studies show no evidence thatimmigrants proportionally commit more crimes than native residents
- -Overall NO major adverse impact on the earnings and job opportunities of natives in the US labor market
- -Immigrants, particularly undocumented, are NOT competing with domestic workers
- -Immigrants contribute to economic growth in the US through their cheap labor, hard work and expertise
- -Difficult to estimate net costs of immigrants to public sector
What is the nature of exclusionary and inclusionary local immigration policies proposed and/or implemented by US municipalities, counties, and states? (see Leitner & Preston chapter)
- 1. Exclusionary
- -Federal-local partnerships: Secure communities
- -local ordinances:rent and employment bans
- 2. Inclusionary
- -ID cards for all immigrants
- -day worker centers
What has motivated these policies? (see Leitner & Preston chapter)
How do visions of nation/national community in the US influence attitudes towards immigrants and the position on immigration policies?