Geo 143: Immigration US

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Geo 143: Immigration US
2013-06-06 05:42:12

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  1. What have been the changes in national origin of immigrants to the US since the early 20th century?
    • 1. Increasing volume of immigration since 1980s
    • 2. Shift in primary sending countries
    • -Latin America and Asia dominate since 1970s
    • 3. Undocumented immigration increase since late 1960s
  2. Which federal laws were introduced to control undocumented immigration and what have been the specific measures that were introduced?
    • -reverse trend of increasing undocumented immigrants
    • 2. 1996 IMMIGRATION ACT
    • -makes asylum applications more difficult 
    • -enhanced border control
    • 3. 1996 WELFARE REFORM ACT
    • -illegals are not eligible for benefits
    • 4. 2001 Patriot Act
    • -deportation based on suspicion
    • 5. 2006 SECURE FENCE ACT
    • -borders
  3. How effective have federal immigration laws and policies been in controlling undocumented immigration?
    Not so much
  4. What were the provisions of the Immigration Reform and Control Act?
    • 1. Employer sanctions - $250 - $10,000
    • 2. Legalization of illegal aliens
    • 3. Temporary employment of foreign agricultural workers
  5. What are the provisions in the Secure Fence Act and what have been the responses?
    • 1. 700 miles of 2 layer reinforced border fence and additional physical barriers
    • 2. Systematic border surveillance through lighting, cameras, ground-based sensors, and satellites
  6. What are the dominant discourses about the impacts of immigration (legal and undocumented) on the US security, economy, welfare state and culture?
    • 1. Security
    • -immigrants as a security threat
    • -immigrants threat to national security
    • -immigrants are responsible for increase in crime, feel less secure
    • 2. Economic
    • -Immigrants have negative effect on employment and wage prospects of US residents
    • -impact on state resources
    • 3. Culture
    • -Non-European immigrants are a threat to American standards and values(dilute american culture)
    • -US is a nation of immigrants
  7. In how far are these arguments substantiated by empirical evidence?
    • -Most studies show no evidence thatimmigrants proportionally commit more crimes than native residents
    • -Overall NO major adverse impact on the earnings and job opportunities of natives in the US labor market
    • -Immigrants, particularly undocumented, are NOT competing with domestic workers
    • -Immigrants contribute to economic growth in the US through their cheap labor, hard work and expertise
    • -Difficult to estimate net costs of immigrants to public sector
  8. What is the nature of exclusionary and inclusionary local immigration policies proposed and/or implemented by US municipalities, counties, and states? (see Leitner & Preston chapter)
    • 1. Exclusionary 
    • -Federal-local partnerships: Secure communities
    • -local ordinances:rent and employment bans
    • 2. Inclusionary
    • -ID cards for all immigrants
    • -day worker centers
  9. What has motivated these policies? (see Leitner & Preston chapter)
  10. How do visions of nation/national community in the US influence attitudes towards immigrants and the position on immigration policies?