AT102 - chapter 6

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AT102 - chapter 6
2013-06-15 21:21:44

Chapter 6
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  1. a condition in which the body temperature is elevated:
  2. Physical contact with an object that can result in either a heat loss or gain is called:
    Conductive heat exchange
  3. Body heat either lost or gained, depending on the temperature of the circulating medium, such as a mass of air or water moving around and individual:
    Convective heat exchange
  4. Heat from sunshine that causes an increased body temperature:

    transfer of heat thru electromagnetic waves:
    Radiant heat exchange
  5. Process by which normal metabolic function the the body results in the production and radiation of heat:
    Metabolic heat production
  6. How is heat eliminated from the body?
    Sweat glands in the skin that allow water to be transported to the surface, where it evaporates, taking large quantities of heat with it:
  7. Transfer of heat thru vaporization of water
    Evaporative heat loss
  8. What factors strongly influence the effectiveness of sweat evaporation?
    The air must be relatively free of water for evaporation to occur

    • evaporation is severely impaired at 65% humidity
    • evaporation virtually stops at 75% humidity
  9. List the actions that can be take to prevent heat illness:
    • Appropriate hydration 
    • Unrestricted fluid and electrolyte replacement
    • Gradual acclimatization
    • Identification of susceptible individuals
    • Appropriate uniforms
    • weight records
    • Monitoring of the heat index
  10. How much fluid should be consumed before practice or events:

    2 hrs prior: 
    20 mins prior:
    • 2 hrs prior: 20-17 oz
    • 20 mins prior: 7-10 oz
  11. How much fluid should be consumed during practice or event?
    8 oz every 15 mins
  12. How much fluid should be consumed after practice or event?
    20 oz per pound of water lost during the practice or event
  13. Describe 3 ways of monitoring hydration status:
    • 1. Color of urine
    • 2. Frequency of urine
    • 3. weight charts
  14. Becoming accustomed to heat and also to exercising in hot temperatures
  15. Which individual are more susceptible to heat illness?
    • Athletes with large muscle mass
    • overweight athletes
    • poor fitness
    • history of heat illness
    • febrile condition
    • the young/elderly
    • athletes on certain medications (ADHD)
  16. Sudden collapse due to a rapid increase in body temperature:
    Heat syncope
  17. Involuntary muscle contraction due to electrolyte and fluid imbalance:
    Heat cramps
  18. Elevated temperatures that will cause profuse sweating, headaches, nausea, vomiting, tiredness
    Heat exhaustion
  19. Significant increase in temperatures, absence of sweating, unconscious, disorientation, a 9-1-1 emergency:
    Heat stoke
  20. What signs and symptoms would be present in a person suffering from heat exhaustion:
    Excessive thirst, dry tongue and mouth, fatigue, weakness, incoordination, mental dullness, low urine volume, slightly elevated body temperature, high serum protein and sodium, reduced swelling
  21. incorporates readings from several different thermometers  to measure heat and humidity:
    Universal wet bulb globe temperature index (WBGT Index)
  22. How would you treat someone with heat exhaustion:
    Bed rest in a cool room, IV fluids if drinking is impaired, increase fluid intake to 6-8L/ day, sponge with cool water,  keep records of body weight and fluid balance, provide semiliquid food until salination is normal
  23. What are the signs and symptoms are present in heat stroke:
    Abrupt onset, CNS abnormalities including headache, vertigo, fatigue, flushed skin,  relatively less sweating than seen with heat exhaustion, rapidly increasing pulse rate Thant may reach 160 to 180, increased respiration, blood pressure seldom rises,  rapid rise in temperature to 104, athlete feels as if they are burning up, diarrhea, vomiting, can lead to permanent brain damage,  circulatory collapse may cause death
  24. How do you care for someone in heat stroke:
    Take immediate emergency measures to reduce temperature, immersion in ice water bath or sponge cool water and air fan over the body, massage limbs, take to the Hospitial as soon as possible
  25. Condition when the body has an abnormally high body temperature:
  26. Condition when the body has an abnormally low body temperature
  27. How does the body lose heat cold weather:
    • Radiation (vascular areas of the body such as head and neck)
    • Evaporation (skin and respiratory tract)
  28. Results from prolonged and constant exposure to cold for many hours and produces skin redness, swelling, tingling, and pain in the toes and fingers
  29. skin appears pale, hard, cold, waxy. Involves the skin and subcantenous tissue only:
    Superficial frostbite
  30. Skin appears pale or white, hard, cold, and numb, tissues are frozen; may become gangrenous and result in a loss of tissue:
    Deep frostbite
  31. A sunscreens effectiveness in absorbing sunburn - inducing radiaition is expressed as:
    Sun protection factor (SPF)
  32. Flash to bang:
    The number of seconds from lightning flash to the sound of thunder divided by 5 to determine the distance from the lightning strike
  33. According to the NCAA and the national severe storms laboratory, what are proper parameters for continuing play:
    30 mins after the last sound of thunder or the last lightning strike is seen
  34. What causes ozone to be produced:
    The action of sunlight on carbon based chemicals known as hydrocarbons, highest levels are when temperatures are high and increased sunlight combined with stagnate atmospheric conditions
  35. what signs and symptoms may be present when an individual works out in high ozone conditions:
    Shortness of breath, coughing, chest tightness, pain during deep breathing, eye irritation, nausea, fatigue, lung irritation, lower resisted to lung infections
  36. What is the treatment for someone with deep frostbite:
    Hot drinks, heating pads, hot water bottles that are 100 to 110 degrees
  37. What individuals will have adverse effects if they work out in air that is high sulfur dioxide:
  38. Caused by the combustion of fossil fuels:
  39. Sunlight acts on nitrogen dioxide:
    Photochemical haze
  40. Desynchronization  of an athletes biological and biophysical time clock
    Circadian dysrhthmia
  41. The physical and mental effects of rapidly traveling across time zones:
    Jet lag
  42. Which of the following is the most effective means that the body has to dissipate heat, when the temperature and radiant heat of the environment are higher than the body temperature:

    a. Conduction 
    b. convection 
    c. Evaporation
    d. Radiation
  43. The purpose of a sling psychrometer is to measure:

    a. relative humidity
    b. Air pressure
    c. Air temperatures
    d. Humidity
  44. A critical consideration in avoiding heat stress is to:

    a. Acclimatize
    b. identify susceptible athletes
    c. Eat a well balanced diet
    d. Use electrolyte solutions
  45. a heat disorder characterized by profuse sweating, diarrhea,persistent muscle cramps and dizziness with loss of coordination:

    a. Heat cramps
    b. Hypothermia 
    c. Exertional heat stroke
    d. Exertional heat exhaustion