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why are animals used for research?
- understand how our bodies work
- find cures and treatment for diseases
- test new drugs for safety
- evaluate new medical procedures before they are used on people
what are other methods used in research?
- computer models
- cell tissue studies
- cells and computer models simply can't mimic the complexity of our bodies
what are the three R's in alternative research?
housing, handling and experimental procedures
numbers of animals used
experimental animals by alternatives
what do principle investigator do?
- plans the experiment
- oversees all phases of work
- report findings
what is the principle investigators protocol?
detailed description of procedures and use of animals
what do co-investigators do?
- arranges the testing
- treat and collects data
what do laboratory animals technician do?
- cleans cages
- feeds waters and observes the lab animals and their environment and sees animals on a daily basis
who are the personnels?
- principle investigator
- laboratory animal technician
- clinical veterinary technician
- laboratory animal veterinaarian
- commercial breeders or dealers
what do clinical veterinary technician do?
- does the treatments
- checks on the sick animals
- performs incoming physicals
- first to be called when abnormalities are noted
what do laboratory animals veterinarian do?
- coordinates animals care operations
- advise investigators
- advise treatment
- help approve protocols
what do commerical breeders or dealers do?
breed and supply the animals
what do aministration do?
- business manager
- facility manager
what does AALAS stand for?
american association for laboratory animal science
what is AALAS in charge of?
principal means of communication between individuals and organizations within fields of lab animals
technicians can be certified on three levels from AALAS. what are these levels?
what does ALAT stand for?
assistent lab animal technician
what does LAT stand for?
lab animal tech
what does LATg stand for?
lab animal technologist
what does USDA?
US department of agriculture
what is USDA in charge of?
preparing standards and enforcing the regulations contained in animal welfare act
what do the USDA do?
- regularly inspects all licenses and fines
- can shut down any operation that does not conform to regulations
all commercial breeders, dealers and vendors of the animals covered by the Act have to be...
all research facilities, zoos, circuses, carnivals, and exhibitions have to be...
registered with the USDA
what does ACLAM stand for?
animal college of laboratory animal medicine
what is ACLAM?
where vets can be board certified and become lab animal specialist
what does AAALAC stand for?
american association for accreditation of laboratory animal care
AAALAC encourages high standards of animal care, involves voluntary visits, evaluations and accreditation. Many funding agencies use AAALAC accreditation as an important factor...
in evaluating whether to award research money
what does IACUC stand for?
instititional animal care and use committee
what does IACUC set up for?
every facility and institution
what does LACUC oversee?
all aspects of an animal care and use program
what does LACUC have?
policies and procedures in the use of animals that reflect federal and other gov. mandates to insure professional standards in the lab animal fields
when was the animal welfare act become a law?
who made the animal welfare act a law?
what was the animal welfare act aimed at controlling?
the interstate sale and transportation of dogs and cats
what was the public led to believe about stray pets?
they we frequently picked up and sold to research facilities
what animals does the welfare act and the USDA cover?
- large animals
what animals does the USDA and the welfare act not cover?
what do the set formulas to determine?
cage sizes for most animals
what does each formula call for?
sufficient space to allow each animal to make normal postural and social adjustments with adequate freedom of movement
other regulations apply to the operation of animal facilities while the animal welfare act is the only federal act that applies to...
almost everyone using animals in research communitys
what does NIH stand for?
national institutes of health
what does the NIH do?
develops policies for persons and institutions which receive federal contract pr grant money for research
what are the standards for the NIH set down in?
the guide for the care and use of laboratory animal (book)
what does FDA stand for?
food and drug administration
what does the FDA do?
produces regulations call the good laboratory practice (GLP)
who has the GLP been followed by?
anyone doing drug research if that data may eventually be used to get lisence for marketing a new product or medication
what is random breeding also called
outbreeding (most humans do)
what does random breeding maximize?
what does the radom breeding try not to do and why?
not to mate related animals so that the colony has a wider range of characteristics
what does random breeding provide?
more vigorous animals and largest number of offsprings
what are two examples of random breeding?
what is inbreeding
- members of a specific strain
- designed to produce genetically similar animals
when is colony said to be inbred
only after 20 consecutive generations of parents to offspring and brother to sister mating has occured
what are examples of inbreeding?
how many inbreed stains are there
what is hybrid breeding?
a selective system in which the parents are of different inbred strains
on male mates to one female
on male mates with 2 or more females
what does SPF stand for?
specific pathogen free
what is gnotobiotic (DC)?
animals that have carefully defined microbial flora, none of which are known to be pathogentic
what is axenic (germ free)?
animals that are completely free of all detectable microrganisms and parasites
what information is found in a record
- breed,stain,and trype of animal
- animal ID #
- date mated
- date of birth
- date weaned and number of babies
- sex of young
- any pertanant vet info
what should laboratory animal facility design promote?
- ease of traffic
- animal health
what do we mean when we say sanitation
- good lighting
- nonporous surfaces
- frequent washing
what type of caging and accessories are there?
- shoebox cage
- suspended cage
- metabolism cage
- restraining cage
- squeeze cage
- transport cage
- cage racks
- special purpose cage
if cages are built in how often should they be washed?
every 2 weeks
what do you need to do with cages that have an automatic water system?
needs to be flushed out after cleaning the cage
once very popular however corrods easily
- highly resistant to corrosion
- holds up the longest
- easy to clean
- you can autoclave it
- high impact
- more popular
for tunnel or conveyor how do you wash it for sanitation purposes?
- detergent wash 180 degree F
- 1-2 rinses
how to you autoclave tunnel or conveyor for sanitation purposes
- autoclave for 15mins at 250 degrees
- need chemical indicators-tape will change color
what are the bological indicators for autoclaving a tunnel or conveyor
- RODAC plates
- CHARM test strips
what can give false indication when autoclaving a tunnel or conveyor
- physical indications
- pressure gauges
how often should an emplyee get a physical and is it required?
yes every year for TB test and Qfever
what saftey objects do you need
- protective clothing
- full facial mask
- shoe cover
- ear protection
what is considered direct exposure
- spills of waste
what is considered indirect exposure
- cage dumping
- waste disposable
what should you check when you get a shipping?
- damage to the freight box
- animal stress
- ill or deceased
when receiving check...
- gives the animals sufficient time to acclimate to new surroundings
- time to evaluate the health of the new arrivals and prevent them from causing illness to existing colonies
why do we use animals for research?
because animals organs work like ours in many ways and researchers who study animals discover information that can't be learned from other sources
what do researches that use animals do?
improves the lives of millions of people each year by giving doctors clues to prevent, treat, and cure illness like cancer diabetisis and AIDS
why are new drugs and treatments for diseases test on animals?
to make sure they are safe on people