Anatomy ch. 1-3

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rrrramxss
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222642
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Anatomy ch. 1-3
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2013-06-05 23:41:49
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anatomy
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chapters 1-3
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  1. Organization levels in order.
    • 1. Atom
    • 2. Molecule
    • 3. Cell
    • 4. Tissue
    • 5. Organ
    • 6. Organ system
  2. What is Homeostasis & the two organ systems that play major roles in controlling homeostasis.
    • Stable internal environment.
    • Nervous AND Endocrine systems.
  3. Negative Feedback
    The output shuts off/reduces the original stimulus.
  4. Positive Feedback
    The output enhances the original stimulous
  5. Superior
    Highest point of the body
  6. Inferior
    Lowest part of the body
  7. Anterior
    Front of the body
  8. Posterior
    Back of the body
  9. Medial
    Towards the center of the body
  10. Lateral
    Towards outside of the body
  11. Proximal
    Parts closest to connecting parts of body
  12. Distal
    Parts farthest from connecting parts of the body
  13. Sagittal/Midsagittal
    Separating left and right portions of the body. CUT DOWN CENTER.
  14. Frontal
    Separating front and back
  15. Transverse
    Cut in half separating top and bottom
  16. Lung Cavity
    Pleural
  17. Heart Cavity
    Pericardial
  18. Stomach Cavity
    Abdominal
  19. Parietal Serosa
    Lines cavity walls
  20. Visceral serosa
    covers organs
  21. Serosae: HEART
    pericardium
  22. Serosae: LUNG
    pleura
  23. Serosae: ABDOMINAL ORGANS
    peritoneum
  24. Abdominopevic Regions
    R Hypochondriac-Epigastric-L Hypochondriac

    R Lumbar-Umbilical-L Lumbar

    R iliac-Hypogastric-L illiac
  25. What is a nucleus of an atom composed of?
    Protons and Neutrons
  26. Atomic number
    • Proton number
    • ALSO electrons.
  27. Atomic mass
    Protons +(plus) Neutrons
  28. Isotope
    Same proton number but different neutron number.
  29. Ionic bonds
    • Attraction between cation and anion. NA+Cl-
    • Complete transferring of electrons
  30. Polar covalent bonds
    unequal sharing. H2O. polar=pull
  31. Non polar covalent bonds
    Equal sharing. O2 Non polar= no pull.
  32. Hydrogen bonds
    Attraction between positive H and negative O or N. Weakest bond!
  33. Acid
    Release H+ 0-6
  34. Base
    Adsorb H+ 8-14
  35. Buffer
    • resist pH change.
    • carbonic acid.
  36. Monosaccharide
    • ribose
    • deoxyribose
    • glucose
    • galactose
    • fructose
  37. disaccharide
    • lactose (glucose+glucose)
    • sucrose (glucose+fructose)
    • maltose (glucose+galactose)
  38. Polysaccharide
    • Starch (plant, polymer of glucose)
    • Glycogen (liver, polymer of glucose)
    • Cellulose (plant, polymer of glucose)
  39. Triglycerides
    glycerol + 3 fatty acids NON POLAR

    (saturated and unsaturated)
  40. Phospholipid
    • Glycerol + 2 fatty acid + phosphate group
    • hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads.
  41. Steroid
    Cholesterol
  42. Eicosanoid
    prostaglandins
  43. Building block for protein\peptide
    amino acid
  44. 4 levels of protein structures
    • PRIMARY - sequence of amino acids
    • SECONDARY - a helix and sheet
    • TERTIARY - covalent bond, hydrogen bond
    • QUATERNARY - >1 peptide.
  45. Denaturation
    disruption of active sites
  46. why are enzymes required for many chemical reactions?
    reduce activation of energy in order to speed up reaction.
  47. What type of organic compounds are DNA and RNA?
    nucleic acids
  48. What is the building block for nucleic acids?
    nucleotide
  49. Structural components of a nucleotide
    pentose sugar, base, phosphate group.
  50. ATP
    • A + ribose + 3 P
    • Terminal P bond: High energy
  51. Components of plasma membrane
    • Proteins: channel/carrier, enzymes, receptors
    • Lipid: cholesterol regulates membrane fluidity
    • Carbohydrate: attach to proteins and lipids
  52. Tight Junction
    Seal
  53. Desmosome (junction)
    anchoring
  54. Gap junction
    passage
  55. Simple diffusion
    CO2, O2, H2O, Hydrophobic
  56. Facilitated
    • Integral Protein
    • Ions, amino acid, glucose
  57. Osmolality
    # of solute particles/kg water; 300mOsm
  58. Isotonic
    same osmolality as ref
  59. Hyper
    higher osmolality than ref
  60. hypo
    lower osmolality than reg
  61. Intracellular Cation
    K+
  62. Extracellular Cation
    Na+
  63. Mitochondrion
    • Double membrane, crisae.
    • Enzymes, DNA, RNA, ribosome, and proteins in matrix
  64. Ribosome
    • produced in nucleolus
    • made of proteins and rRNAs
    • make proteins for cytosol
  65. Rough ER
    ribosome attachment, protein synthesis.
  66. Smooth ER
    lipid synthesis
  67. Golgi Apparatus
    • modify, sort, concentrate, pack, deliver. (post office)
    • DELIVER TO: plasma membrane. secretion, lysosome
  68. Lysosome
    • membrane
    • acidic
    • hydrolase
    • destruction
  69. Endomembrane system
    nuclear envelope, ER, vesicle, golgi apparatus, lysosome, plasma membrane
  70. Peroxisome
    • like police!
    • oxidase neutralize harmful substances
    • detoxify
  71. Cytoskeleton
    • microfilament :actin for movement
    • Intermediate filiment: fibrous protein for shape
    • Microtubule: tubilin for trafficking
  72. Centriole
    2 centrisomes, 9 triplets of microtubule, radiate out of microtuble.
  73. Cilia and flagella
    • sperm.
    • 9 doublets + 2 microtubules
  74. Nucleus
    • Double layer nuclear envelope
    • Nucleolus:NO MEMBRANE
    •     rDNA, rRNA, proteins, ribosomes
    •     Produce ribosomes
  75. Chromatin
    Interphase
  76. Chromosome
    sister chromatids, condensed, centromere
  77. Interpahse
    • Growth
    • Checkpoints in G1 and G2
    • S: DNA replication
  78. DNA REPLICATION
    • In nucleus
    • 5 end strand is synthesized first
    • ***helicase, RNA primer, DNA polymerase, leading strand, lagging strand, DNA ligase
    • New strand is shorter than the template
    • SEMICONSERVATIVE: new DNA contains one new strand and one old stand
  79. MITOSIS: Nucleus division (make cell clones
    • Centresome, mitotic spindle (microtubule), nuclear envelope, chromatin, chromostome, sister chromatids
    • prophase
    • metaphase-checkpoint
    • anapahse
    • telophase
  80. Cytokinesis
    • Division of cytoplasm
    • Microfilament forms contractile ring.
  81. Meiotic cell division (make sex cells)
    • Meiosis 1: homologues synapsis. 1 diploid-->2 haploid
    • Meiosis 2: 2 haploid ---> 4 haploid
  82. Transcription
    • From DNA to RNA
    • Make 5 end of RNA first
    • initial RNA polymerase binding. RNA elongation by base-pairing rule. termination.
  83. mRNA modification
    • START- promary mRNA in nucleus
    • modification in nucleus **5 end cap, 3 end tail, splicing of introns.
    • FINISH- Mature mRNA moves to cytoplasm
  84. TRANSLATION
    • From TNA to protein
    • NEED: ribisome, mRNA (codon), tRNA (transport amino acids), rRNA (localization, enzyme) amino acids.
  85. Triplets
    3 nucleotides in DNA
  86. Codon
    3 nucleotides, in mRNA, complementary to triplet.
  87. Anti codon
    3 nucleotides, in tRNA, complementary to codon
  88. Start codon
    AUG for methionine
  89. ER-bound ribosomes
    • translation starts in sytosol
    • signal sequence in synthesized first
    • guide ribosome to ER

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