written packet.txt

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written packet.txt
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  1. Scientists believe ____ ___- were the first to have evolved becuse they store genetic information.
    Nucleic Acids
  2. First cells were enclosed in ___________.
    fatty acid membranes
  3. Before photosynthesis, cells were engaged in ________ metabolism. These increased O2 in the atmosphrere.
    Anaerobic
  4. Eukaryotes developed ______ which were thought to have arisen through _________.
    organelles; endosymbiosis.
  5. ________ reasoning make conclusions from a ltd set of observations which leads to a hypothesis.
    Inductive reasoning
  6. A hypothetical explanation gives way to _________ reasoning
    deductive
  7. Science limitations
    needs to be repeatable, cannot explain supernatural, ethical bounds, descriptive not prescriptive.
  8. Capacity to cause change
    Energy
  9. Energy due to location/structure
    Potential energy
  10. _______ bonding is important for carbon
    Covalent
  11. Hydrogen Bonding is important because of
    1. High heat capacity, 2. heat of vaporization, 3. Cohesion
  12. the 4 macromolecules are
    Carbs, Lipids, Nucleic acids, & proteins
  13. overview of carbs
    sugar/polysaccharides
  14. Overview of lipids
    fat fat fat! insoluble in water, therefore, non polar
  15. Overview on proteins
    composed of amino acids. Polymers of 20 different amino acids
  16. Overview of Nucleic acids
    the msot complex molecules. DNA & RNA
  17. All of thhe macromolecules are polymers except for
    lipids
  18. polymers are created through a
    condensation reaction
  19. ____ are the body's major source of energy
    carbs
  20. Different kinds of monosaccharides (3 kinds)
    trioses, pentoses, hexoses
  21. Disaccharides are joined by ______ linkages
    glycosidic
  22. _________ are composed of many monosaccharides and are bound to lipids and proteins
    ogliosaccharides
  23. _________ are used for immediate energy needs but are not involved in storage
    polysaccharides
  24. this is a polymer of glucose that is found in plants. it can be branced (amylopectin) or unbranched (amylose). It is stored in plastids (chloroplast) and is an alpha-monomer
  25. alpha monomers
    starch and glycogen
  26. this is a HIGHLY BRANCHED polymer of glucose. it is a compound found in animals and stored in liver and muscles in human. it is more branched than starch
    glycogen
  27. This is a structural component in wood. and the most abundant organic compound on earth. it is also a polymer of glucose
    cellulose
  28. B-monomer
    cellulose
  29. A glycerol and 3 fatty acids
    triglycerides
  30. these are insoluble, hydrophobic, and placed together by van der waals
    lipids
  31. this is composed of an alcohol with hydroxyl groups attatched to 3 Carbons.
    glycerol
  32. this is a long carbon skeleton with a carboxyl group at the end
    fatty acid
  33. they are al hydrophobic and they separate in water
    triglycerides
  34. this kinds of cells store fat, insulate the body and cushion around vital organs
    adipose cells
  35. The summation of all chemical reactions that occur in a biological system at a given time
    metabolism
  36. Step by step enzime driven pathway: a precursor molecule converted to a final product
    metabolic pathways
  37. Construction of complex molecules from simple ones. aka biosynthetic
    anabolic pathways
  38. breakdown of complex molecules from simpler subunits
    catabolic pathways
  39. ____ reactions take advantage of _____ reactions' energy released
    anabolic/catabolic
  40. Energy can be transfered or transformed, not created nor destroyed.
    first law of TD
  41. Entropy (disorder) is always increasing as energy is converted. some is lost and becomes unavailable to do work
    2nd law of TD
  42. these are polymers of nucleotide monomers. their main function is to store, transmit, and use hereditary information... genes.
    nucleic acids
  43. 2 major types of nucleic acids
    DNA & RNA
  44. nucleotides are bound together by
    phosphodiester linkages
  45. These are nucleotides with one ring structure
    pyrimidines
  46. These are nucleotides with 2 ring structures
    purines
  47. purines (pure as gold)
    adenine and guanine
  48. Pyrimidines
    cytosine and thymine (uracil in RNA)
  49. this consists of 1 strand of polynucleotides but can hydrogen bond to form 3d structuers
    RNA
  50. this consists of 2 strands, and forms a double helix pattern
    DNA
  51. Uracil, adenine, and thymine have ____h bonds
    2
  52. Guanine and cytosine have ____ h bonds
    3
  53. The central dogma of genetics
    DNA is transcribed onto complementary strand of RNA and translated into specific sequence of amino acids, this results in a creation of protein
  54. polymer of amino acids
    proteins
  55. amino acids are composed of 3 parts.
    amino group, variable group (R), and carboxyl group
  56. this is the backbone structure of a protein
    primary
  57. this is the kind of protein structure that has H bonding between repeating parts, A helix and B pleated
  58. This protein structure involves bond between variable R groups, it is much less predictable
    tertiary
  59. This protein structure involves multiple polypeptides
    quaternary
  60. a type of catalytic RNA
    ribozymes
  61. some enzymes only function in the presense of
    cofactors, prosthetic groups, and coenzymes.
  62. the body controls enzyme activity in two ways
    regulating gene expression and regulating activity of enzymes
  63. name the types of enzyme inhibitos
    natural and artificial
  64. two categories of inhibitors
    reversible and irreversible inhibitors
  65. reversible inhibitors can be
    competitive and non competitive
  66. this adds phosphae groups
    protein kinases
  67. the primary mechanism cells use to interact with the environment
    diffusion
  68. this dictates the ability to exchange substances with the environment
    surface area
  69. as the cell gets bigger, volume _____ faster than _____ so its surface-to-area ratio falls
    increases; surface area
  70. Have chromosomes and genetic material
    both eukaryote and prokaryote cells
  71. Have cytosol and semifluid substance
    both eukaryote and prokaryote cells
  72. have an outer plasma membrane
    both prokaryote and eukaryote
  73. no membrane bount organelles
    prokaryotes
  74. genetic material is not in the nuc
    prokaryote cells
  75. have a rigid cell wall
    prokaryotes
  76. have highly permeable cell wall
    prokaryotes
  77. have flagella
    prokaryotes
  78. everything within cell membrane except for the nuc or nucleoid region, includes cytosol
    cytoplasm
  79. combination of water and dissolved material surronding organelle
    cytosol
  80. membrane bound organelles
    eukaryotes
  81. have double nuclear membrane and nuclear envelope
    eukaryotic cells

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