6 pathways tat harvest and store chemical energy.txt

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6 pathways tat harvest and store chemical energy.txt
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2013-06-06 01:33:36
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principles of life
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  1. Energy is stored in
    chemical bonds
  2. Energy releasing reactions are
    exergonic
  3. Energy-requiring reacition
    (endergonic)
  4. _______________ is a kind of 'energy currency in cells
    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
  5. Energy released by exergonic reactions is stored in __________
    bonds of ATP
  6. When ATP is _______, free energy is released to drive exergonic reactions.
    hydrolized
  7. Hydrolisis equation of ATP
    ATP + H20 -> ADP + Pi + FREEENERGY
  8. Phosphate groups have ____ charge
    negative
  9. two ways ATP can be formed
    substrate-level phosphorylation OR oxidative phosphorylation
  10. Energy can also be transfered y the translfor of electrons in
    oxidation
  11. Reduction reaction
    gain of one or more ELECTRONS
  12. Oxidation
    loss of one or more electrons
  13. when a molecule loses a hydrogen atom, it becomes _____.
    oxidized
  14. he more ______ a molecule is, the more energy is stored in its bonds.
    reduced
  15. Energy is transfered in a _____ reaction
    redox
  16. Energy in the _____ agent is transferred to the reduced product.
    reducing
  17. Coenzyme _____ is a key electron carrier in redox reactions
    NAD+
  18. NAD+ is the ______ form
    oxidized
  19. NADH is the ______ form
    reduced
  20. Equation of reduction of NAD+
    NAD+ + h+ + 1/2O2 -> NAD+ + H20
  21. In cells, energy is released by ______ by oxidation and trapped by reduction of coenzymes, NADH.
    catabolism
  22. Energy for _____ processes is suppplied by ATP
    anabolic
  23. _______ transfers energy from NADH to ATP
    Oxidative Phosphorylation
  24. equation for oxidative phosphorylation couples oxidation of NADH
    NADH -> NAD + H+ 2e + ENERGY
  25. PRODUCTION OF ATP EQUATION
    energy + ADP + Pi -> ATP
  26. diffusion of protons across a membrane, which drives the synthesis of ATP
    chemiosmosis
  27. in order for ATP to be synthesized, 3 things must be present
    ATP synthase, ADP, and inorganic phosphate
  28. Cellular respiration to oxidize glucose.
    carb + 6O2 -> 6H2O + CHEMICAL ENERGY
  29. photosynthesis is a major _______ pathway.
    anabolic
  30. Photosynthesis equation
    6CO2 + 6H2O + LIGHT ENERGY -> 6CO2 + CARBS
  31. 3 pathways for oxidation
    1. glycolisis, 2. pyruvate oxidation, 3. citric acid cycle.
  32. Glycolycis has _____ reactions. I takes place in _______.
    10; cytosol
  33. final products in glycolysis
    2 molecules of pyruvate, 2 molecules of atp, 2 molecules of nadh
  34. Products of Pyruvate oxydation
    CO2 and acetatep acetate is then bound to coenzyme A (CoA)
  35. Citric acid cycle has ____ reactions, operates _____ for every glucose molecule that enters glycolysis.
    8; twice
  36. Citric acid cycle starts with ______
    acetyl CoA
  37. In the citric cycle, acetil group is oxydizes with ______
    two CO2
  38. In the citric cycle. _____ is regenerated in the last step
    Oxaloacetate
  39. ATP synthase in the membrane uses the H+ gradient to synthesize ATP by....
    chemiosmosis
  40. for each fully oxidized glucose, _____ molecules of ATP are produced
    32
  41. most of the ATP produced is formed by
    OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
  42. Under anaerobic conditions, NADH is reoxidized by
    fermentation
  43. in ___________, nadh is used to reduce pyruvate to lactic acid, thus regenerating NAD+
    LACTIC acid fermentation
  44. In alcoholic fermentation, the end product is ______.
    alcohol (ethanol).
  45. during ________, pyruvate is converted to acetalaldehyde, and CO2 is released. NADH is used to reduce Acetaldehyde to ethanol, regenerating NAD+ for glycolysis.
  46. convert light into chemical energy (in ATP and the reduced electron carrier NADPH).
    light reactions

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