Biology 1110 Mid-Term
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What are the seven characteristics that all living things have in common?
- 1. Reproduction
- 2. Regulation
- 3. Respond to stimuli
- 4. Evolutionary adaptations
- 5. Energy processes
- 6. Growth and development
- 7. Organization
What are the levels of biological organization?
- - Biosphere
- - Ecosystem
- - Community
- - Population
- - Organism
- - Organ System
- - Tissue
- - Cell
- - Organelle
- - Molecule
- - Atom
Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
- Compare: - both contain DNA
- - both have ribosomes
- - both have a plasma membrane
- Contrast: - eukaryotic cells store DNA in a
- nucleus whereas prokaryotic
- cells have free floating DNA
- - eukaryotic cells are 10-100
- micro meters whereas
- prokaryotic cells are 1-10
- micro meters
Compare and contrast a plant and animal cell.
- Compare: - both have ribosomes
- - both have a cell membrane
- - both have a nucleus
- Contrast: - plant cells have a central vacule
- whereas an animal cell has many
- small vacules
- - plant cells have a cell wall and
- animal cells do not
Describe the function of the following cellular structures.
- Cell membrane
- Cell wall
- Smooth and Rough ER
- Golgi Body
- Central vacuole
- phospholipid bilayer that controls what enters and exits the cell
- fluid like substance that fills cell
- holds genetic information
- site of protein synthesis
- adds stability to plant cells
- stores DNA
- site of lipid synthesis, stores calcium and detoxifies drugs and alcohol
- site of membrane and protein synthesis
- receives processes, packages and ships products of the golgi body
- digests food for digestion and recycling by cell
- Mitochondria - processes energy in the form of ATP
- Chloroplasts - site of photosynthesis
- Central Vacuole - stores water and waste
Outline the main components of the cell theory.
- - All living organisms are composed of cells
- - All cells arise form other cells
- - The cell is the basic unit of life
Define the terms metabolism and homeostasis.
Metabolism - all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
Homeostasis - the ability to regulate internal environments
Define the terms evolution, adaptation, and natural selection.
Evolution - decent with modification
Adaptation - inherited characteristics of an organism that enhances its survival and reproduction in a specific environment
Natural Selection - gradual process where biological traits become more or less noticeable in a population over time
Briefly explain how natural selection occurs and how it leads to evolution.
- Species produce more offspring then an environment can sustain, which leads to competition. Organisms are forced to adapt to available resources and to defend themselves against predators. Good adaptations mean that an organism survives and produces more offspring with the same positive traits. Over multiple generations, adaptations become permanent traits and the organism has evolved.
Describe the terms hypothesis, theory, and controlled experiment.
Hypothesis - a tentative answer to a well framed question
Theory - a broad statement that is supported by a vast amount of evidence
Controlled Experiment - compares an experimental and a control group
Distinguish between discovery based science and hypothesis based science.
- Discovery based science involves the collection of a large number of observations to look for patterns or correlations whereas hypothesis based science is based on what is already known
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