Biology 1110 Mid-Term

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Biology 1110 Mid-Term
2013-06-06 15:49:47
biology 1110 mid term intro taxonomy systematics biomes biogeochemical cycles plant animal kingdom

Flash cards on Intro to Biology, Taxonomy, Systematics, Biomes, Biogeochemical Cycles, The Plant Kingdom, and The Animal Kingdom.
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  1. What are the seven characteristics that all living things have in common?
    • 1. Reproduction
    • 2. Regulation
    • 3. Respond to stimuli
    • 4. Evolutionary adaptations
    • 5. Energy processes
    • 6. Growth and development
    • 7. Organization
  2. What are the levels of biological organization?
    • - Biosphere
    • - Ecosystem
    • - Community
    • - Population
    • - Organism
    • - Organ System
    • - Tissue
    • - Cell
    • - Organelle
    • - Molecule
    • - Atom
  3. Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
    • Compare: - both contain DNA
    •                 - both have ribosomes
    •                 - both have a plasma membrane

    • Contrast: - eukaryotic cells store DNA in a                          
    •                 nucleus whereas prokaryotic
    •                 cells have free floating DNA
    •               - eukaryotic cells are 10-100
    •                 micro meters whereas
    •                 prokaryotic cells are 1-10
    •                 micro meters
  4. Compare and contrast a plant and animal cell.
    • Compare: - both have ribosomes
    •                 - both have a cell membrane
    •                 - both have a nucleus

    • Contrast: - plant cells have a central vacule
    •                 whereas an animal cell has many
    •                 small vacules
    •               - plant cells have a cell wall and
    •                 animal cells do not
  5. Describe the function of the following cellular structures.

    - Cell membrane
    - Cytoplasm
    - DNA
    - Ribosmes
    - Cell wall
    - Nucleus
    - Smooth and Rough ER
    - Golgi Body
    - Lysosomes
    - Mitochondria
    - Chloroplasts
    - Central vacuole
    Cell Membrane - phospholipid bilayer that  controls what enters and exits the cell

    Cytoplasm - fluid like substance that fills cell

    DNA - holds genetic information

    Ribosomes - site of protein synthesis

    Cell Wall - adds stability to plant cells

    Nucleus - stores DNA

    Smooth ER - site of lipid synthesis, stores calcium and detoxifies drugs and alcohol

    Rough ER - site of membrane and protein synthesis

    Golgi Body - receives processes, packages and ships products of the golgi body

    Lysosomes - digests food for digestion and recycling by cell

    • Mitochondria - processes energy in the form of ATP
    • Chloroplasts - site of photosynthesis
    • Central Vacuole - stores water and waste
  6. Outline the main components of the cell theory.
    • - All living organisms are composed of cells
    • - All cells arise form other cells
    • - The cell is the basic unit of life
    • -
  7. Define the terms metabolism and homeostasis.
    Metabolism - all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism

    Homeostasis - the ability to regulate internal environments
  8. Define the terms evolution, adaptation, and natural selection.
    Evolution - decent with modification

    Adaptation - inherited characteristics of an organism that enhances its survival and reproduction in a specific environment

    Natural Selection - gradual process where biological traits become more or less noticeable in a population over time
  9. Briefly explain how natural selection occurs and how it leads to evolution.
    - Species produce more offspring then an environment can sustain, which leads to competition. Organisms are forced to adapt to available resources and to defend themselves against predators. Good adaptations mean that an organism survives and produces more offspring with the same positive traits. Over multiple generations, adaptations become permanent traits and the organism has evolved.
  10. Describe the terms hypothesis, theory, and controlled experiment.
    Hypothesis - a tentative answer to a well framed question

    Theory - a broad statement that is supported by a vast amount of evidence

    Controlled Experiment - compares an experimental and a control group
  11. Distinguish between discovery based science and hypothesis based science.
    - Discovery based science involves the collection of a large number of observations to look for patterns or correlations whereas hypothesis based science is based on what is already known