CSET - subtest II (science portion)

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CSET - subtest II (science portion)
2013-06-07 21:22:54
cset subtest II science

CSET - subtest II (science portion)
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  1. What name is given to the cells that make up most living things?
  2. Name the two methods of cell reproduction:
    • meiosis
    • meitosis
  3. What does photosynthesis create? (3)
    oxygen, carbohydrates, water
  4. What do cells create when they respire/respirate?
  5. Where are genes located?
  6. What type of life could have developed spontaneously in Earth's early atmosphere?
    early life
  7. What is the name of the very first cells to develop?
  8. What is the dominant invertebrate animal class?
  9. Which animal has the most striking genetic similarity to humans?
    African Ape
  10. What types of organisms make up the Protistae Kingdom? examples?
    • single cell eukaryotes
    • ex: algae and protozoa
  11. What three main functions do bacteria perform?
    • live on dead material
    • helpful in human bodies
    • function as parasites
  12. What plant group includes the most deciduous trees?
  13. What are the four stages of complete metamorphosis?
    • egg
    • larva
    • pupa
    • adult
  14. What part of the circulatory system carries blood back to the heart?
  15. What part of a cell transmits signals?
  16. What does the endocrine system consist of?
    glands that secrete hormones
  17. What function do granulocytes perform in the immune system?
    they ingest antigens already killed by cells enzymes
  18. What do ecologists study?
    relationship b/w organisms and their ecosystem
  19. What survival options do subdominant individuals have? (4)
    • they accept a poorer habitat,
    • give up resources,
    • immigrate,
    • or perish
  20. How do plants and animals balance the carbon cycle?
    • plants give oxygen and take in carbon dioxide
    • animals give carbon dioxide and take in oxygen
  21. What do cosmologists study?
    the universe
  22. About how long does it take for light to travel from the North Star to the Earth?
    300 years
  23. What causes seasons on the Earth?
    tilt of the Earth's axis
  24. What percent of the Earth's atmosphere is nitrogen? oxygen?
    • 78
    • 21
  25. About what percent of the Earth's surface is covered by water?
  26. What is the temperature of the Earth's inner core?
    10,000 degrees F
  27. In which direction does Coriolis force pull air in the Southern Hemisphere?
    Southeast (SE)
  28. About what percent of sea water is salt?
  29. How were the Earth's continents arranged during the Permian Period about 280,000,000 years ago?
    one continent called Pangaea
  30. How are metamorphic rocks formed?
    existing rocks are subjected to enormous pressure
  31. What subatomic particles do atoms consist of?
    • protons
    • neutrons
    • electrons
  32. How can matter be destroyed?
    it can't be destroyed
  33. When do chemical reactions occur?
    when a bond between an atom forms or breaks
  34. Does a body's mass vary?
  35. What two factors determine a body's velocity?
    • magnitude
    • direction
  36. How does Newton's second law describe the relationship b/w mass and acceleration?
    the more the mass, the less the acceleration
  37. What type of energy does fuel in a car's gas tank represent?
    potential energy
  38. What must happen for work to occur?
  39. What method of transfer moves heat from a heating pad to a person's back?
  40. What determines a wave's frequency?
    vibrations per second
  41. What 3 things may happen when light strikes a surface?
    • reflected
    • absorbed
    • scattered
  42. Through which medium does sound travel most quickly?
  43. What charges may an object possess?
    • positive
    • negative
    • neutral
  44. What does an ampere measure?
    rate of current flow
  45. Where is the magnetic North Pole?
    Northeastern canada
  46. Name the three types of energy radioactive material can release:
    • alpha
    • beta
    • gamma
  47. What is the advantage of nuclear fusion over fission?
    • FUSION
    • b/c its much safer b/c it releases less radioactivity
  48. What type of bacteria was previously called blue-green algae?
  49. What are prokaryotes?
  50. Plant cells and animal cells are ....
  51. What parts do plant and animal cells have in common? (6)
    • cytoplasm
    • cell membrane
    • organelles
    • nucleus
    • nuclear membrane
    • golgi apparatus
  52. What two things make plant cells differ from animal cells?
    • plants have a cell wall outside the membrane
    • plants have plastids (where photosynthesis takes place)
  53. List the six stages of cell reproduction in order:
    • interphase
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
    • cytokinesis
  54. What are the first four stages of cell reproduction called?
  55. What is mitosis?
    the cell duplicates its own chomosomes
  56. Interphase:
    cell prepares for mitosis
  57. prophase:
    • mitosis begins
    • cell begins to divide
  58. metaphase:
    chromosomes align at the equator of the cell
  59. anaphase:
    • sister chromosomes are formed
    • they move toward opposite ends of the cell
  60. telophase:
    • mitosis ends
    • two new nuclei are formed
  61. cytokinesis:
    • the cell splits into two daughter cells¬†
    • reproduction complete
  62. What does meiosis create? (3) what do they have?
    • gametes
    • sperm cells
    • egg cells
    • they each have half of chromosomes (haploid) ¬†found in human cell
  63. What is it called when a sperm and egg cell combine into a single cell? what does this turn into?
    • zygote
    • human with complete set of chromosomes (diploid)
  64. Photosynthesis process:
    • CO2 and water are broken down
    • Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll
    • Carbs are formed
    • Plant releases oxygen into air
  65. How do cells create energy?
  66. Where does respiration occur? 2 types?
    • mitochondria
    • aerobic or anaerobic
  67. aerobic respiration:
    the oxidation of food in the presence of oxygen
  68. anaerobic respiration:
    • fermentation
    • takes place WITHOUT oxygen
  69. homeostasis:
    maintains the cell's equilibrium
  70. what is a rodlike structure located in the cell nucleus?
  71. DNA creates _ _ _ which serves as the __________ that carries the _____ ___ throughout the cell
    • RNA
    • messenger
    • genetic code
  72. which type of cells convert energy without oxygen (anaerobic)? *hint* they were the first cells
  73. Second cells to develop were ______ which were _____ (created energy w/oxygen) and used the process of _________
    • cyanobacterium
    • aerobic
    • photosynthesis
  74. How long did it take for algae to develop? what did it contain a HUGE amount of?
    • 2.7 billion years
    • DNA
  75. What developed from freshwater algae?
  76. Algae reproduce by?
    cell division
  77. Mosses and ferns use _____ to reproduce.
  78. natural selection
    adapt to environment and the "best" survive
  79. How long ago did dinosaurs become extinct?
    65 million years ago
  80. The earliest fossil evidence for humans dates back how many years?
  81. What era had humans, grazing and meat-eating mammals?
  82. What era had primates, flowering plants, birds, dinosaurs, and mammals?
  83. What era had reptiles, ferns, insects, vascular land plants, fish-chordates, and shellfish?
  84. What era had algae, eukaryotic, and prokaryotic cells?
  85. Living things are classified into __ kingdoms
  86. What two kingdoms include prokaryotes?
    • Archaea
    • Eubacteria
  87. What kingdom includes all single-celled eukaryotes?
  88. The Fungi kingdom includes _____ ______ who gain their nutrition through ____. example?
    • multicelled eukaryotes
    • absorption
    • mushrooms
  89. The Plantae kingdom includes _____ ______ who gain their nutrition through ____.
    • multicelled eukaryotes
    • photosynthesis
  90. The Annimalae kingdom includes _____ ______ who gain their nutrition through ____.
    • multicelled eukaryotes
    • ingestion
  91. What are the three classifications of bacteria?
    • bacilli (rod)
    • cocci (spherical)
    • spirilla (coiled)
  92. What is a bit of genetic material surrounded by a protective coat of protein?
  93. What is lifeless, lacks the ability to reproduce by itself, parasitic, and isnt classified in one of the six kingdoms?
  94. Why dont plants move?
    they dont have a nervous system
  95. what is the largest group of plants?
  96. what group of plants includes plants with no flowers and have needles for leaves? such as a pine tree.
  97. seeds that grow underground are called...(2)
    tubers (potato) and bulbs (onion)
  98. What part of a plant brings food produced in the leaves to the rest of the plant?
    phloem tissue
  99. What part of a plant brings water and nutrients from the roots?
    xylem tissue
  100. What part of a plant is the reproductive unit?
  101. female flower that contains reproductive parts is called?
  102. male flower that includes the anther, which produces the pollen, is called?
  103. what part of the flower receives pollen?
  104. Insects, arachnids, and crustaceans fall under what class?
  105. ______ are cold blooded animals that compromise about 25% of all the animals on earth.
  106. A mature insect must have the following parts: (6)
    • head
    • thorax
    • abdomen
    • 6-jointed legs
    • 2 antennae
    • exoskeleton
  107. Explain simple metamorphosis:
    nymph (looks like small adult, emerges from egg)--->adult
  108. XX
  109. XY
  110. Nutrients are absorbed through the ___ ____ into the _______
    • small intestine
    • bloodstream
  111. What two things move into the large intestine? where does it go from there?
    • waste
    • undigested food
    • rectum-->anus
  112. cells-->?-->?-->organ system-->?
    • tissue
    • organ
    • body
  113. What do bones consist of?
    • living marrow
    • blood vessels
    • nerves
    • surrounded by hard calcium exterior
  114. List the 5 parts of the spinal column from top to bottom:
    • cervical
    • thoracic
    • lumbar
    • fused sacrum
    • fused coccyx
  115. What does the central nervous system consist of?
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  116. What does the peripheral nervous system consist of?
    nerve cells that exit the spinal cord and extend to all parts of the body
  117. What are the two parts of the heart? location?
    • atrium (upper)
    • ventricle (lower)
  118. What are the three types of muscle?
    • skeletal
    • smooth
    • cardiac
  119. Smooth muscles control...
    involuntary acts
  120. Which gland is located near the brain and is the primary gland in the body?
    pituitary gland
  121. Which glands are found near the kidney?
  122. Which is found in the neck and regulates mental and physical alertness?
  123. What control the immune system and kill antigens directly?
  124. List the steps in the water cycle in order:
    • evaporation
    • condensation
    • precipitation
    • collection
  125. List the planets in order:
    • Mercury
    • Venus
    • Earth
    • Mars
    • Jupiter
    • Saturn
    • Uranus
    • Neptune
  126. How long does it take light to travel from the sun to the earth?
    8 minutes
  127. The earths revolution is the cause of Earth's...
  128. The earth's rotation is the cause of Earth's...
    day and night
  129. Low tides occur halfway between...
    two high tides
  130. Tides move around the Earth as the _____ revolves around the Earth creating ___ high and ___ low tides every day
    • moon
    • two
    • two
  131. When do the highest tides occur?
    when the sun and moon are in a straight line (spring tides)
  132. The word planet comes from a Greek word meaning what?
  133. light travels about how many miles in ONE year?
    6 trillion miles
  134. What two things combined to create "The Big Bang?"
    • helium
    • hydrogen
  135. the study of earth's atmosphere is called...
  136. What creates our weather?
    complex movement of air masses
  137. Weather fronts move from ___ to ___ in the US.
    west to east
  138. high pressure system..good or bad weather? which way does the wind circulate?
    • good
    • to the right/east
  139. low pressure system..good or bad weather? which way does the wind circulate?
    • bad
    • to the left/west
  140. low-hanging clouds are classified as...
  141. puffy cotton-like clouds that appear in the afternoon are classified as...
  142. high wispy clouds that are made up of ice crystals are classified as ...
  143. cumulus clouds that are huge, dark, and produce thunderstorms are classified as...
  144. When does lightning occur?
    when positive and negative charges are separated in the atmosphere
  145. The ocean floor is covered by?
  146. what are the source of volcanic eruptions?
    midocean ridges
  147. The earth's atmosphere extends out...
    650 miles
  148. how much of the Earth's atmosphere is habitable?
    first 3.5 miles or so
  149. how far about the earth is the ozone layer?
    20 miles
  150. Four parts of the Earth's geologic structure?
    • crust
    • mantle
    • outer core
    • inner core
  151. How many miles is it from the surface to the center of the Earth?
  152. The lithosphere includes...(2)
    • rigid crust
    • upper mantle
  153. The ____ in the inner core keeps the core ___
    • pressure
    • solid
  154. How are rocks/fossils dated?
    radioactive isotope dating
  155. What type of chemistry is about living things?
  156. What does the atomic number tell?
    number of protons in the nucleus (typically same number of electrons too)
  157. Round atomic weight to nearest whole number to determine: (2)
    • atomic mass
    • which determines #of protons&neutrons
  158. define isotope:
    atoms of the same element but with varying numbers of neutrons
  159. carbon 6 with an isotope of 14 has how many neutrons?
  160. atoms of the same element, with diff number of protons and electrons, are called?
  161. a _____ is the smallest part of a compound (2 or more elements united chemically) with the properties of that compound
  162. acids dissolved in water produce what?
  163. bases dissolved in water produce what?
  164. acid + base = ?
  165. define solution:
    when an element(s) or compound(s) is dissolved in another substance
  166. the rearrangement of electrons creates a...
    chemical reaction
  167. the amount of matter in a body & it's inertia is called...
  168. Archimedes discovered what? What did he shout in the process?
    • density
    • "eureka!"
  169. _____ is concerned w/an object's response to force and the resulting movement
  170. ____ is an energy that causes a change in an object's motion or shape
  171. d (distance traveled)= ??
    • d = vt
    • velocity x time
  172. newton's 1st law:
    • inertia
    • body maintains its state of rest unless acted upon by an outside source
  173. newton's 2nd law:
    • constant acceleration
    • force = mass x acceleration
    • or
    • acceleration = force/mass
  174. newton's 3rd law:
    • conservation of momentum
    • every action has an equal and opposite reaction
  175. activation energy does what?
    converts Potential energy into Kinetic energy
  176. the rate of work is __?
  177. power is measured in ______. the amount it takes to raise one ____, by one ___ at sea level
    • footpounds
    • pount
    • foot
  178. ____ is energy in motion
  179. how is heat measured?
  180. conduction
    physical contact
  181. convection
    from moving liquid or gas
  182. radiation
    no physical contact
  183. Most ___ is produced by heated _____ vibrating at high frequencies.
    • light
    • electrons
  184. ___ surfaces absorb all light.
    ___ surface scatter all light.
    • black
    • white
  185. a volt measures...
    force of a current
  186. the ohm measures the...
    resistance in the wire to the flow of electricity
  187. When are materials radioactive?
    when they have unstable nuclei
  188. In a solar eclipse, the ___ blocks the ____ ____ from reaching earth
    • moon
    • sun's light