CSET - subtest II (science portion)
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CSET - subtest II (science portion)
cset subtest II science
CSET - subtest II (science portion)
What name is given to the cells that make up most living things?
Name the two methods of cell reproduction:
What does photosynthesis create? (3)
oxygen, carbohydrates, water
What do cells create when they respire/respirate?
Where are genes located?
What type of life could have developed spontaneously in Earth's early atmosphere?
What is the name of the very first cells to develop?
What is the dominant invertebrate animal class?
Which animal has the most striking genetic similarity to humans?
What types of organisms make up the Protistae Kingdom? examples?
single cell eukaryotes
: algae and protozoa
What three main functions do bacteria perform?
live on dead material
helpful in human bodies
function as parasites
What plant group includes the most deciduous trees?
What are the four stages of complete metamorphosis?
What part of the circulatory system carries blood back to the heart?
What part of a cell transmits signals?
What does the endocrine system consist of?
glands that secrete hormones
What function do granulocytes perform in the immune system?
they ingest antigens already killed by cells enzymes
What do ecologists study?
relationship b/w organisms and their ecosystem
What survival options do subdominant individuals have? (4)
they accept a poorer habitat,
give up resources,
How do plants and animals balance the carbon cycle?
plants give oxygen and take in carbon dioxide
animals give carbon dioxide and take in oxygen
What do cosmologists study?
About how long does it take for light to travel from the North Star to the Earth?
What causes seasons on the Earth?
tilt of the Earth's axis
What percent of the Earth's atmosphere is nitrogen? oxygen?
About what percent of the Earth's surface is covered by water?
What is the temperature of the Earth's inner core?
10,000 degrees F
In which direction does Coriolis force pull air in the Southern Hemisphere?
About what percent of sea water is salt?
How were the Earth's continents arranged during the Permian Period about 280,000,000 years ago?
one continent called Pangaea
How are metamorphic rocks formed?
existing rocks are subjected to enormous pressure
What subatomic particles do atoms consist of?
How can matter be destroyed?
it can't be destroyed
When do chemical reactions occur?
when a bond between an atom forms or breaks
Does a body's mass vary?
What two factors determine a body's velocity?
How does Newton's second law describe the relationship b/w mass and acceleration?
the more the mass, the less the acceleration
What type of energy does fuel in a car's gas tank represent?
What must happen for work to occur?
What method of transfer moves heat from a heating pad to a person's back?
What determines a wave's frequency?
vibrations per second
What 3 things may happen when light strikes a surface?
Through which medium does sound travel most quickly?
What charges may an object possess?
What does an ampere measure?
rate of current flow
Where is the magnetic North Pole?
Name the three types of energy radioactive material can release:
What is the advantage of nuclear fusion over fission?
b/c its much safer b/c it releases less radioactivity
What type of bacteria was previously called blue-green algae?
What are prokaryotes?
Plant cells and animal cells are ....
What parts do plant and animal cells have in common? (6)
What two things make plant cells differ from animal cells?
plants have a cell wall outside the membrane
plants have plastids (where photosynthesis takes place)
List the six stages of cell reproduction in order:
What are the first four stages of cell reproduction called?
What is mitosis?
the cell duplicates its own chomosomes
cell prepares for mitosis
cell begins to divide
chromosomes align at the equator of the cell
sister chromosomes are formed
they move toward opposite ends of the cell
two new nuclei are formed
the cell splits into two daughter cells
What does meiosis create? (3) what do they have?
they each have half of chromosomes (haploid) found in human cell
What is it called when a sperm and egg cell combine into a single cell? what does this turn into?
human with complete set of chromosomes (diploid)
CO2 and water are broken down
Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll
Carbs are formed
Plant releases oxygen into air
How do cells create energy?
Where does respiration occur? 2 types?
aerobic or anaerobic
the oxidation of food in the presence of oxygen
takes place WITHOUT oxygen
maintains the cell's equilibrium
what is a rodlike structure located in the cell nucleus?
DNA creates _ _ _ which serves as the __________ that carries the _____ ___ throughout the cell
which type of cells convert energy without oxygen (anaerobic)? *hint* they were the first cells
Second cells to develop were ______ which were _____ (created energy w/oxygen) and used the process of _________
How long did it take for algae to develop? what did it contain a HUGE amount of?
2.7 billion years
What developed from freshwater algae?
Algae reproduce by?
Mosses and ferns use _____ to reproduce.
adapt to environment and the "best" survive
How long ago did dinosaurs become extinct?
65 million years ago
The earliest fossil evidence for humans dates back how many years?
What era had humans, grazing and meat-eating mammals?
What era had primates, flowering plants, birds, dinosaurs, and mammals?
What era had reptiles, ferns, insects, vascular land plants, fish-chordates, and shellfish?
What era had algae, eukaryotic, and prokaryotic cells?
Living things are classified into __ kingdoms
What two kingdoms include prokaryotes?
What kingdom includes all single-celled eukaryotes?
The Fungi kingdom includes _____ ______ who gain their nutrition through ____. example?
The Plantae kingdom includes _____ ______ who gain their nutrition through ____.
The Annimalae kingdom includes _____ ______ who gain their nutrition through ____.
What are the three classifications of bacteria?
What is a bit of genetic material surrounded by a protective coat of protein?
What is lifeless, lacks the ability to reproduce by itself, parasitic, and isnt classified in one of the six kingdoms?
Why dont plants move?
they dont have a nervous system
what is the largest group of plants?
what group of plants includes plants with no flowers and have needles for leaves? such as a pine tree.
seeds that grow underground are called...(2)
tubers (potato) and bulbs (onion)
What part of a plant brings food produced in the leaves to the rest of the plant?
What part of a plant brings water and nutrients from the roots?
What part of a plant is the reproductive unit?
female flower that contains reproductive parts is called?
male flower that includes the anther, which produces the pollen, is called?
what part of the flower receives pollen?
Insects, arachnids, and crustaceans fall under what class?
______ are cold blooded animals that compromise about 25% of all the animals on earth.
A mature insect must have the following parts: (6)
Explain simple metamorphosis:
nymph (looks like small adult, emerges from egg)--->adult
Nutrients are absorbed through the ___ ____ into the _______
What two things move into the large intestine? where does it go from there?
What do bones consist of?
surrounded by hard calcium exterior
List the 5 parts of the spinal column from top to bottom:
What does the central nervous system consist of?
What does the peripheral nervous system consist of?
nerve cells that exit the spinal cord and extend to all parts of the body
What are the two parts of the heart? location?
What are the three types of muscle?
Smooth muscles control...
Which gland is located near the brain and is the primary gland in the body?
Which glands are found near the kidney?
Which is found in the neck and regulates mental and physical alertness?
What control the immune system and kill antigens directly?
List the steps in the water cycle in order:
List the planets in order:
How long does it take light to travel from the sun to the earth?
The earths revolution is the cause of Earth's...
The earth's rotation is the cause of Earth's...
day and night
Low tides occur halfway between...
two high tides
Tides move around the Earth as the _____ revolves around the Earth creating ___ high and ___ low tides every day
When do the highest tides occur?
when the sun and moon are in a straight line (spring tides)
The word planet comes from a Greek word meaning what?
light travels about how many miles in ONE year?
6 trillion miles
What two things combined to create "The Big Bang?"
the study of earth's atmosphere is called...
What creates our weather?
complex movement of air masses
Weather fronts move from ___ to ___ in the US.
west to east
high pressure system..good or bad weather? which way does the wind circulate?
to the right/east
low pressure system..good or bad weather? which way does the wind circulate?
to the left/west
low-hanging clouds are classified as...
puffy cotton-like clouds that appear in the afternoon are classified as...
high wispy clouds that are made up of ice crystals are classified as ...
cumulus clouds that are huge, dark, and produce thunderstorms are classified as...
When does lightning occur?
when positive and negative charges are separated in the atmosphere
The ocean floor is covered by?
what are the source of volcanic eruptions?
The earth's atmosphere extends out...
how much of the Earth's atmosphere is habitable?
first 3.5 miles or so
how far about the earth is the ozone layer?
Four parts of the Earth's geologic structure?
How many miles is it from the surface to the center of the Earth?
The lithosphere includes...(2)
The ____ in the inner core keeps the core ___
How are rocks/fossils dated?
radioactive isotope dating
What type of chemistry is about living things?
What does the atomic number tell?
number of protons in the nucleus (typically same number of electrons too)
Round atomic weight to nearest whole number to determine: (2)
which determines #of protons&neutrons
atoms of the same element but with varying numbers of neutrons
carbon 6 with an isotope of 14 has how many neutrons?
atoms of the same element, with diff number of protons and electrons, are called?
a _____ is the smallest part of a compound (2 or more elements united chemically) with the properties of that compound
acids dissolved in water produce what?
bases dissolved in water produce what?
acid + base = ?
when an element(s) or compound(s) is dissolved in another substance
the rearrangement of electrons creates a...
the amount of matter in a body & it's inertia is called...
Archimedes discovered what? What did he shout in the process?
_____ is concerned w/an object's response to force and the resulting movement
____ is an energy that causes a change in an object's motion or shape
d (distance traveled)= ??
d = vt
velocity x time
newton's 1st law:
body maintains its state of rest unless acted upon by an outside source
newton's 2nd law:
force = mass x acceleration
acceleration = force/mass
newton's 3rd law:
conservation of momentum
every action has an equal and opposite reaction
activation energy does what?
converts Potential energy into Kinetic energy
the rate of work is __?
power is measured in ______. the amount it takes to raise one ____, by one ___ at sea level
____ is energy in motion
how is heat measured?
from moving liquid or gas
no physical contact
Most ___ is produced by heated _____ vibrating at high frequencies.
___ surfaces absorb all light.
___ surface scatter all light.
a volt measures...
force of a current
the ohm measures the...
resistance in the wire to the flow of electricity
When are materials radioactive?
when they have unstable nuclei
In a solar eclipse, the ___ blocks the ____ ____ from reaching earth