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  1. Factors influencing biomes
    temperature and precipatation --> latitude, elevation, ocean currents
  2. climate
    average pattern of weather conditions in region
  3. biome
    large regions that have similar living and non-living factors, same climate, same plant types
  4. community
    all living things in ecosystem
  5. ecosystem
    part of biome different from other parts in abiotic and biotic factors (log, pond, forest)
  6. population
    number of same species in an area
  7. organism
    living thing
  8. species
    can reproduce with each other
  9. ecological heirarchy
    organism, population,community, ecosystem
  10. habitat
    place where specific a organism lives
  11. niche
    role in environment, how it survives--> all chemical, physical, biological interactions for it to survive, grow, reproduce
  12. competition
    harmful interaction between 2 or more organisms when they compete for same resources at same place, same time --> limits population sizes
  13. predation
    interaction, predator eats all or part of prey
  14. symbiosis
    • interaction between memboers of 2 different species that live together in a close association
    • mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
  15. mutualism
    both benefit
  16. commensalism
    one benefit, other unaffected/harmed
  17. parasitism
    one benefit, other harmed
  18. adaptations
    • characteristics that enable organisms to better survive and reproduce
    • structual, physiological, behavioral
  19. structual adaptation
    physical feature of body with specific function that attributes to survival of organism
  20. physiological adaptation
    physical/chemical event in body (photosynthesis, hibernation)
  21. behavioral adaptation
    what organism does in unique environment (feeds, mates, care for young, migrates, burrows to escape predators)
  22. biotic
  23. abiotic factors
    sunlight, water, nutrients
  24. nutrients
    chemicals required for plant and animal growth (carbon, nitrogen, phosphurous)
  25. biomes present in Canada
    temperate rainforest, grassland, boreal forest, tundra, temperate deciduous forest, (dessert)
  26. Tundra
    • Climate: less than 25 cm precipitation annually
    • Summer temperatures: 3°C to 12°C
    • Winter temperatures: -20°C to -30°C
    • Physical Features: flat layer of permafrost (permanently frozen soil); poor drainage; marshy in summer; 24 h daylight in brief summer; cold and dark in long winter
    • Plant Adaptations: no trees due to permafrost; plants grow close to ground so they can absorb warmth and be sheltered; some plants have fuzzy coverings to protect them from wind; shrubs flower quickly; some plants keep old leaves for protection and to conserve nutrients
    • Animal Adaptations: animals may grow more slowly and reproduce less often; Arctic foxes and hares have compact bodies and shorter legs and ears to reduce heat loss; the snowy owl has white colouring to blend in with surroundings; birds migrate here in summer to eat the many insects; caribou migrate away in winter to find food sources
  27. Boreal Forest
    • Climate: precipitation, mostly snow, is 30 cm to 85 cm annually;
    • temperatures are below freezing half the year
    • Physical Features: short summer growing season; terrain is rough,soil is wet; many marshes, shallow lakes, and wetlands
    • Plant Adaptations: trees are mostly coniferous, including spruce, and their waxy needles resist water loss and allow snow to slide off; little light reaches forest floor
    • Animal Adaptations: insect-eating birds migrate south in fall, seedeaters stay year-round; mammals have thick insulating coats; insects multiply rapidly; reptiles and amphibians are rare; snowshoe hares change fur from summer brown to winter white
  28. Temperate Deciduous Forest
    • Climate: annual precipitation is 75 cm to 180 cm;
    • temperatures range from -30°C winter to 30°C summer
    • Physical Features: four distinct seasons; long, warm growing season; soil is enriched by fallen leaves; large seasonal changes between summer and winter
    • Plant Adaptations: plants grow in four to five layers, with tall trees (maple, oak, and birch) in canopy layer, shorter trees in second layer, shrubs in third layer, berries in fourth layer, and ferns, herbs, and mosses on forest floor; deciduous trees shed leaves in winter to prevent water loss and reduce breakage of limbs with heavy snow
    • Animal Adaptations: many animals live in the different layers of forest; some mammals hibernate; many birds migrate away in winter;chipmunks and blue jays store nuts and seeds in tree hollows
  29. Temperate Rainforest
    • Climate: more than 200 cm precipitation per year; average
    • temperatures 5°C to 25°C
    • Physical Features: biome occurs in narrow strips along coastlines backed by mountains where ocean winds drop large amounts of moisture on windward side of mountains
    • Plant Adaptations: trees, such as Sitka spruce and Douglas fir, grow very tall; mosses on trees; ferns, mosses, and fungi on forest floor
    • Animal Adaptations: most animals live on or near forest floor; many birds and small mammals eat seeds that fall on forest floor; many insects live in tree bark, and birds with long beaks and amphibians with sticky tongues eat those insects
  30. Grasslands
    • Climate: 25 cm to 100 cm precipitation annually;
    • hot summers of 30°C and cold winters below -10°C
    • Physical Features: land is mainly flat and soil is very rich and fertile; strong winds may cause soil erosion; precipitation usually occurs in late spring and early summer followed by an extended dry period
    • Plant Adaptations: trees are scarce due to limited rainfall; grazing animals (animals that eat plants, such as grasses) and fire may kill seedlings; some grasses have sharp edges or are too bitter for grazing; grasses are adapted for drought and fire by having deep roots; grasses can bend without breaking in wind; many wildflowers pollinated by insects
    • Animal Adaptations: large grazing mammals, such as antelope, have flat teeth that grind plant material; animals such as mice, rabbits, gophers, and snakes burrow to escape fire, predators, or extreme weather
  31. Biome differentiation:
    • temp rainforest |- Lots of rain |warm and cool
    • tropical rain |- > 200 |always warm
    • dessert |+ |hot
    • tundra |+ super dry |cold with tiny warm
    • prem. ice |+ < 20 |super cold
    • grassland |very low rain
    • boreal forest |low rain, cold
    • temp diciduous. |medium rainfall
Card Set:
2013-06-07 00:08:53
Science 10 Ch1 Biomes

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