ScienceCh3Ecological progression.txt

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lilypad622
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222745
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ScienceCh3Ecological progression.txt
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2013-06-06 20:52:34
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Science 10 Ch3 ecological succession
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  1. natural selection
    process proposed by Darwin where environmental factors favour selection of fit individuals
  2. adaptive radiation
    • process by which members of a species adapt to a variety of habitats
    • Galapagos finch beak
  3. ecological succession
    gradual change that occurs when organisms colonize a habitat, modify it, and are forced out by a new species better adapted to the now altered environment.
  4. Primary succession
    • area no soil exists eg rock/glacier retreat
    • wind brings pioneer species: alter abiotic and biotic envron so other species can live there: Lichen (fungus and algea), mosses
    • -> die = nutrients and soil -> insects and micro-organisms
    • -> grasses wild flowers, shrubs, more insect organisms
    • -> trees: sun-tolerant deciduous become replaced by coniferous, non-tol
    • -> mature community
  5. secondary succession
    • occurs after major disturbance, like forest fire in an area already has soil and had living organisms
    • soil contains seeds, micro-org, earthworns, insects
    • more rapid than primary
  6. mature/climax community
    stable group of two or more species is able to survive and reproduce indefinitely in same habitat
  7. ecological stability
    populations able to return to previous state when disturbed
  8. flooding
    • volume of water exceeds ability of water body to contain it
    • run-off, melting snow, tsunami, heavy rain
    • soil erosion, pollution, disease
  9. tsunamis
    • huge, rapidly moveing wave
    • earthquakes, underwater volcanic eruptions
    • salt changes soil, rips away plants and animals
  10. drought
    • below-avg amount of precip over years/months
    • can usually recover, crop failure, livestock death, plants and animals die
  11. insect infestation
    • destroys older weaker trees normally good, resin by young trees flush mountain pine beetle and blue stain fungus out
    • suppression of forest fires, warmer temp = larvae surviving
    • young trees attacked, forest in critical shape
  12. land use
    ways we use land around us for urban develop, agricul, industry, mining, forestry
  13. habitat loss
    • destruction of habitats, can no longer support original species
    • urbinization, clear-cutting
  14. habitat fragmentation
    • division of habitats into smaller, isolated fragments
    • roads
  15. deforestation
    forests logged or cleared for human use
  16. soil degration
    water and wind erosion remove topsoil
  17. soil compaction
    • soil squeezed together, air spaces reduced
    • run-off, bad soil health, reduce growth of plants
    • agriculture
  18. aeration
    small plugs of soil removed to help soil compaction
  19. resource use/exploitation
    ways we octain and use raw materials
  20. contamination
    • introduction of chem, toxins, wastes, micro-organisms in concentrations harmful to living thing
    • mining
  21. over-exploitation
    use/extration of material until depleted, can result in extinction
  22. extinction
    dying out of species (carrier pigeon)
  23. traditional ecological knowledge
    reflects human experience with native gained over centuries
  24. Proliferation
    grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissues, cells, or offspring
  25. invasive species examples
    • competition: Eruropean starling competes with blue jays,
    • predation: Norway rats eats nesting birds, American bullfrog eats native BC frogs
  26. Eurasian milfoil
    spread by boats, dense mats at lake surfaces, cutting off sunlight to organisms below
  27. Scotch broom
    bushy shrub, overloads nitrogen, ruins habitat of birds and butterfly, replaces native shrubs
  28. grey squirrels
    outcompete red squirrels for acorns
  29. gypsy moth
    larvae strip oak trees of leaves

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