34.txt

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34.txt
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34 principles life
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ch 34 principles of life
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  1. Ch 34
  2. Taxa with with elongate, bilaterally symmetrical bodies are more
    Specialized
  3. Sensory towards front
    Cephalization
  4. Vertebrates have a _____ and ______ nervous systems.
    Central and peripheral
  5. Brain and spinal cord
    CNS
  6. Nerves and ganglia
    PNS
  7. Nervous system has two kinds of systems
    Neurons and neuroglia
  8. Nervous system is shaped by
    Competition of neurons for survival; synapse elimination (neurons establish more synapses during development than will be maintained.)
  9. What supports and protects neurons
    Neuroglia
  10. 4 types of neuroglia
    Ependymal cells, microglia, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes
  11. Largest and most numerous of the neuroglia
    Astrocytes
  12. Structural support for neurons, establish BBB, line cpillaries to protect from toxins
    Astrocytes
  13. Ciliated cells that line the central canal and ventricles of the brain/spinal cord. Help in secretion and circulation of CSF
    Ependymal
  14. Smallest and least numerous of neuroglia. Act as wandering police force. Engulf cellular debiris, waste and pathogens.
    Microglia
  15. Mediate inflamatory responses
    Microglia
  16. Myelinate axons in the brain and spinal cord; do same thing out side cns
    Oligodendrocytes
  17. Myelinated axons. Link CNS to sensory/motor of PNS.
    White matter
  18. Unmyelinated; includes neuron cell bodies, dendrite
    Gray matter
  19. Grey matter surrounds white matter in the _______
    Brain
  20. White matter surrounds grey matter in the _____
    Spinal cord
  21. 3 stages of info processing
    Afferent/interneurons/efferent.
  22. Information is received from sensory cells
    Afferent (sensory)
  23. Info is received at brain or ganglia, integrated, stored, and transmitted.
    Internourons
  24. Send commands to effectors such as muscle and glands
    Efferent (motor)
  25. Difference in electrical charge
    Membrane potential
  26. All cells have ____ across the membrane
    Membrane potential
  27. When a neuron is NOT signaling, resting potential is
    -60 mv
  28. The difference in _____ between insides and outside of cell establishes voltage differences and membrane potential
    Ionic charge
  29. Sodium/potassium pump uses ____ to move NA out and bring K in
    ATP
  30. This establishes a concentration gradient and creates a neg charge inside cell. (membrane potential)
    Sodium/potassium pump
  31. Channels that are always open
    Leak channels
  32. These channels open/close due to force applied to cell membrane
    Chemically gated
  33. When the resisting potential DECREASES, this is known as
    Depolarization (towards 0mV)
  34. When the resting potention increases
    Hyperpolerization
  35. A small localized change in membrane potential
    Graden membrane potential
  36. Steps to action potential
    Depolarization to threshold, activation of Na channels and rapid depolarization, inactivation of Na channels and ACTIVATION of K channels, return to normal permeability
  37. During this phase, depolarization occurs, na channels are open
    Rising phase
  38. During this phase, it becomes impermeable to sodium and potassium channels open
    Falling
  39. Na is still activated
    Undershoot
  40. Falling phase plus undershooot
    Refractory period
  41. One direction of the refractory period; prevents reversals
    Continuous
  42. Myelin increases propagation speed by allowing a signal to jump
    Saltatory
  43. Conduction speed is affected by
    Axon diameter and degree of myelination
  44. Neurotransmitter used in neuromuscular synapses is
    Acetylcholine (Ach)
  45. Post-synaptic membrane for a muscle cell is the
    Motor end plate
  46. If enough Ach is released, the muscle cell will
    Depolarize and generate action potential
  47. 5 main categories of neurotransmitters
    Acetylcholine, biogenic amines, amino acids, neuropeptides, dissolved gasses
  48. Neuro muscular junctions use
    Acetylcholine
  49. _____ breaks down acetylcholine
    Acetylcholinesterase
  50. Toxins inhibit release of acetylcholine (cant breathe)
    Botulism
  51. Has an excitatory effect
    Norepinephrine
  52. May be inhibitory or excitatory. Cocain inhibits removal of this. Parkinson's disease is result of damage to neurons that produce this
    Dopamine
  53. Inadequate production of this can have significant and widespread effects on a attention and emotional states. May be responsible for sever depression
    Serotonin
  54. Provides automatic regulation of internal envmnt
    Autonomic nerv syst
  55. Controls skeletal muscle contractions. Voluntary, responds to external stimuli
    Somatic
  56. 2 parts of autonomic nervous system
    Sympathetic and parasympathetic.
  57. Post-ganglionic neurons of sympathetic are
    Noradrenergic (release norepinephrine)
  58. Post ganglionic neurons of parasmpathetic are
    Cholinergic. Release acetylcholine
  59. Ventral root controls
    Motor
  60. Dorsal root controls
    Sensory
  61. Myelinated axons
    Whte matter
  62. Natural cell bodies
    White matter
  63. Vertebrate brains have bigger/more complex
    Olfactory, gustatory, photoreceptors, neuromasts, and electroreceptors
  64. Is formed by filtration of arterial blood
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  65. Relay station for sensory info going to telecephalon. Receives input from brain regions that regulate emotion/arousal.
    Thalamus
  66. Includes pineal gland, participates in production of CSF
    Epithalamus
  67. Regulates endocrine glands. Body therm. And role in sex/mating behaviors, fight or flight, pleasure
    Hypothalamus.
  68. This is derived from telencephalon
    Cerebrum
  69. These are the centers from planning/learning sequences of movement
    Basal nuclei
  70. In mammals, the cerebrum does 3 things
    Perception, learning, memory and conscious behavior
  71. Layers of neurons on outermost part
    Neocortex, more developed in primates
  72. Top of brain in birds that has neurons clustered into nuclei, may be primitive
    Avian pallium
  73. 4 lobes of brain
    Temporal, parietal, occipital, frontal
  74. Part of the brain that receives and processes auditory info.
    Temporal
  75. Visual processing part of the brain
    Lower temporal
  76. Identifying and naming objects
    Lower temporal
  77. Largest part of the brain lobes. Feeling and personality
    Frontal lobe
  78. This controls muscles in specific parts of the body (fine motor control)
    Primary cortex
  79. Important in temperament, decision making, as well as emotional experience.
    Prefrontal cortex
  80. Association of complex stimuli
    Parietal lobe
  81. Responsible for somatosensory cortex, receives touch and pressure info. Translates visual info to 3d space
    Parietal
  82. Receives and processes visual info.
    Occipital lobe
  83. Association areas necessary to make sense of visual world and translate visual experience into language
    Occipital lobe
  84. Damage to _____ removes ability to understand speech but not to speak.
    Left temporal lobe (wernike)
  85. Limbic system is part of
    Forebrain
  86. Limbic system includes:
    Amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus
  87. Involved in transfer of short term to long term memory
    Hippocampus
  88. Involved in processing visual and auditory info
    Midbrain
  89. Crebelellum, pons, and medula oblongata
    Hind brain
  90. These function in breathing and circulation
    Medulla and pons
  91. This is important in coordinating muscle activity and maintaining balance
    Cerebellum
  92. Pons medulla and midbrain
    Brainstem
  93. All axons passing in & out of higher brain regions pass through
    Brainstem
  94. Center for heart/blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, digestion, breathing; contains centers that cause sleep when activated
    Medulla
  95. Determines what info reaches cerebral cortex.
    Reticular formation
  96. Has arousal (wakefulness) center
    Reticular formation
  97. Integrates coordinates motor commands from cerebrum
    Metencephalon
  98. Scn stands for
    Suprachiasmatic nucleus
  99. Controls circadian rhytm
    Scn
  100. Enzymes produce melatonin
    Scn
  101. Shrinkage in brain tissue
    Alzheimer's
  102. 2 main stages of sleep
    Rem and non rem
  103. Resembles awake brain
    REM

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