37.txt

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Anonymous
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222779
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37.txt
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2013-06-07 02:27:19
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37 principles life
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principles of life ch 37
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  1. Only mechanism for gas echange
    Diffusion
  2. When gas is being exchange between two media (water and air) equilib will be reached when
    Gas molecules enter & leave at same rate
  3. With fick's law, high diffusion rates require
    Large A and short L
  4. In ficks law, q must be
    Slow enough to allow contact between blood & medium
  5. In ficks law, variables should be
    Adjustable so gas exchange meets needs of animal
  6. Respiratory structures in ANY taxon will have
    Large surface area and short diffusion distances
  7. Gas exchange must be kept
    Moist
  8. In respiration, metabolic costs mean
    Larger respiratory surfaces in endotherms vs ectotherms.
  9. To maximize partial pressure gradients,
    Minimize path length, ventilation, and perfusion
  10. Actively more external medium over gas exchange
    Ventilation
  11. Actively moving internal medium to transport co2 to membrand and o2 away
    Perfusion
  12. Total _______ in gills is much greater than the body itself
    Surface area
  13. Cray fish and lobster move water _____ gils with ______.
    Over; appendages
  14. Muscles and clams move water with ______.
    Cilia
  15. Fish move water ____ gills as they swim
    Over
  16. Gill filaments are covered with
    Gill lamellae; lots of surface area for gas exchange
  17. Countercurrent exchange, blood and water __________
    Flow in opposite directions
  18. In countercurrent exchange, pressure gradient at both ends
    Extracts the maximum amount of oxygen from the water via diffusion
  19. Small insects depend on ____ for ventilation
    Diffusion
  20. Larger insects use flight muscles to
    Push air through system
  21. In insects there is no _______ necessary
    Circulatory system participation
  22. Normal amount of air inspired and expired during quiet breathing
    Tidal volume
  23. Stale air that remains after exhalation
    Residual volume
  24. In birds, site of gas exange are
    Parabronchi
  25. These have air capillaries surrounded by blood capillaries
    Parabronchi
  26. Air pathway
    Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, two bronchi, smaller bronchioles
  27. Reuces surface tension in aveoli, decreases effort necessary for inflation
    Sufractant
  28. Affects premature infants may not produce enough; they develop
    Respiratory distress syndrome
  29. Collapsed lung
    Atelectasis
  30. Loss or damage to alveoli, increase in residual hormone
    Emphysema
  31. 4th leading cause of death
    Emphysema
  32. Breathing control centers are in
    Medulla oblongata and pons
  33. Neurons in pons
    Regulate tempo

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