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what is the importance of glucocorticoids in terms of development?
- - GCs are required for the brain to properly organize itself
- -affects on the fetus
- --> not enough = decreased number of stress hormone receptors
- --> too much = delayed maturation of neurons and glia
what is the point of the life cycle model of stress?
different regions of the brain are sensitive to stress at different times in development and aging because of what that region is doing in terms of growth
what is the difference between programming and interaction effects?
- -programming - before birth; fundamentally shapes the brain
- -interaction - after birth; stressor interacts with established brain structures
prenatal stress has what major effects in adulthood?
learning impairments, drug-related behaviors, anxiety/depression
what effects do postnatal stress have?
- -amygdala volume/activity
- -GC levels
- -anxiety levels/disorders
what effects do adolescent stress have?
- -riskier decision
- -sensitive to social stressors (publicly speaking)
what effects does adult stress have?
- - decreased: hippocampal volume (memory) and neurogenesis
- - increased: GCs
what happens in the hippocampus during different developmental periods?
- - prenatal and childhood stress lead to permanent effects in adulthood
- - adult stress is reversible for adulthood
what are the different stress hypothesis and what inspired them?
neurotoxicity hypothesis - adult work
vulnerability hypothesis - developmental work
why do early-life stressors have delayed effects on development?
-stress affects the hippocampus indirectly through the amygdala
what is some evidence for the neurotoxicity hypothesis?
- adults with closer proximity to the World Trade Center had lower gray matter volume
- -amygdala, cingulate, medial PFC, hippocampus
what is the neurotoxicity hypothesis?
excess exposure to stress hormones reduces neuronal integrity and strength
going to war changes the brain and leads to PTSD/depression
what is the vulnerability hypothesis?
effects of stress are a result of interaction of stressors and pre-existing vulnerabilities (genetics or brain) to stress
if you already have a smaller hippocampus, you are more like to get PTSD/depression by going to war