38.txt

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38.txt
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2013-06-07 04:39:49
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38 principles life
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ch 38 principles of life
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  1. Gas exchange takes place in
    Cellular level
  2. In gastrovascular cavities, interior cells are bathed
    By fluid from external environment via cavity
  3. ____ is very effective in gastrovascular cavities because of short distances
    Diffusion
  4. 3 circulatory system components
    Circulatory fluid, connecting tubules, pump (heart)
  5. Some taxa do not have blood, they have
    Hemolymph.
  6. This acts as interstitial fluid
    Hemolymph
  7. In an open circulatory system, body movements help circulation by
    Squeezing sinuses
  8. Advantages of open system
    Less pressure needed , less energy, hydrostatic pressure can help extend legs or other functions
  9. Advantages of closed system.
    Higher bp results in higher metabolism and more efficient delivery of oxygen. Blood flow can be controlled, specific cells and molecules can be kept in vessels
  10. Arteries carry blood
    Away
  11. Veins
    Drain
  12. Arteries are usually
    High in oxygen
  13. Veins are usually
    Low in oxygen
  14. Capillaries
    Pass through every tissue and are site of gas exchange
  15. Arteries structure
    Round at cross section; thick wall, elastic
  16. Veins structure
    • One way valves; thin walled; veins have valves to keep them towards heart.
    • All blood vessels have a
    • Central cavity: Lumen
  17. The lumen is lined with _______ cells called _______.
    Epithelial; endothelium.
  18. Endothelium characteristics
    Smooth and low friction.
  19. Capillaries structure
    Very thin walls. Excellent for diffusion
  20. How does plasma help
    Buffer against ph change, viscosity, maintain osmotic balance.
  21. Plasma is composed of
    90% water, ions, and proteins
  22. Leukocytes
    WBC
  23. ERYTHROCYTES
    RBC
  24. Platelets
    Related to clogging.
  25. Formation of erythrocytes
    Erythropoiesis
  26. Erythropoiesis controlled by
    Erythropoietin
  27. Erythropoietin released by
    Kidney when it feels oxygen deprived.
  28. erythropoeitin stimulates
    Bone marrow to make more rbc
  29. More blood cells means
    It can bond to hemoglobin in blood and rise blood-oxygen levels again.
  30. Shape of erythrocytes
    Biconcave
  31. Most numerous of blood cells
    Rbc
  32. Life span of rbc
    120 days
  33. Function of rbc
    Transport oxygen (250 molecules of hemoglobin)
  34. Reason blood is red
    Heme
  35. Spleen’s two jobs
    Stores erythrocytes and filter old blood
  36. _____ help break down rbc in spleen
    Macrophages
  37. Sometimes, the heme becomes ____ and is excreted in _____.
    Bilirubin ; bile.
  38. Receiving chamber in heart
    Atria
  39. Structure in heart that pumps blood
    Ventricles
  40. Simplest circulatory pattern
    Circulatory
  41. Circulatory pattern has
    One atrium, one ventricle, (sinus vinosis- receiving and conus arteriosus)
  42. Circulatory pattern cycle
    Atrium > ventricle > gills (gas exchange) – arteries > capillaries, body tissues (gas exchange) > heart. Depend on movement on muscles to keep blood moving (fish)
  43. 3 species of lungfish
    Use lungs almost exclusively
  44. Circulatory pattern: lungfish.. they have a certain luxury:
    They can switch the valve and bypass gills and shift to lung breathing and visa versa
  45. Circulatory pattern to gills
    Branchial circulation
  46. Circulation to lungs
    pulmonary
  47. In circulatory pattern: lungfish, the anatomy:
    • Atrium and ventricle kept separate
    • Amphibians
    • Double circuit circulation
  48. In amphibialn circuit
    Atrium _ venrical > aorta > body system> back into right atrium> pushed over to lungs to get oxygen (has some kind of chamber.
  49. Spiral valve
    In amphibial circulatory system, separate in the shared mixed chamber
  50. When an amphibian is underwater, gas exchange takes place through
    Skin (pulmo cutaneous artery). Lungs become useless.
  51. Turtle snakes and lizzards heart how many chambers?
    3 chambers
  52. What happens when a reptile bypasses the pulmonary artery
    The blood instead passes through right aorta, back into systematic capillaries (body), up right atrium to the ventricle and again out the right (purple) aorta. The left atrium (oxygenated) is not involved in this mechanism. This is effective because low activity reduces oxygen needs but they are still circulating blood
  53. Crocodilians do not have a 4 chambered heart BUT they have a special shunt
    Foramen of panizza
  54. Connects base of pulmonary artery to aortic arches when underwater
    Foramen of panizza to bypass lungs
  55. Blood goes back to heart by
    Vena cava
  56. Which is the thicker wall for stronger contraction
    Left ventricle
  57. Why is the left ventrical stronger
    It has to pump blood throughout the whole body
  58. Bicuspid
    Left
  59. Tricuspid
    Right
  60. ____ cells specialized to generate heartbeat
    Vertebrate
  61. Heart cells originate in the
    Myogenic.. made in the heart itself.
  62. ___ node acts as pacemaker
    Sinoatrial (SA); sets pace of cells and their conractions.
  63. 2 phases in cardiac cycle(heart beat)
    Diastole and systole
  64. Relaxed heart phase
    Diastole
  65. Heart is contracting phase
    Systole
  66. Depolarization of atial muscle
    P
  67. Depolarization of ventricles
    Qrs
  68. Relaxation and repolarization of ventricles
    T
  69. How much blood gets pumped out of each ventricle per minute
    Cardiac output
  70. Cardiac output determined by
    Concentration, stroke volume, peripheral resistance
  71. Most humans cardiac output
    5 L/min
  72. Frank starling law-
    If cardiac muscles are stretched, then they will become more forceful.
  73. High surface are of blood is
    Good, can filter and diffuse
  74. Blood entering venous sysem
    Lower surface area; increased velocity
  75. Starlings foces has to do with
    BP against vessel walls, osmotic pressure. Tug of war
  76. If there are not enough proteins in blood, then not enough solutes, therefore
    Can result in edema (cant get fluids back to capularies)
  77. Renin-angitiotensin alderstone system
    • Monitor bp of arteries by kidney.
    • Renin activates
    • Angiotensin, constricts vessels, caust thirst, raise bp
  78. Adh released from
    Posteriorpituitary, causes kidney to absorb more water

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