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bacterial diseases of the nervous system
- meningococcal meningitis
- haemophilus meningitis
coverings of brain and spinal cord
inflammation, fluid pressures brain and spinal cord
What is the cause of meningococcal meningitis?
- neisseria meningitidis
- gram negative diplococci
- pathogenic strain encapsulated
- humans are natural carrier
What is the pathology of meningococcal meningitis?
- transmission- resp. droplets or close contact
- lipid A of LPS in cell wall trigger fever, vasodilation, inflammation and shock, severe headache, light sensitivity, nauseau/vomiting, nuchal rigidity
treatment for meningococcal meningitis?
antibiotics; possibly IV
vaccine for meningococcal meningitis?
- acellular, LPS
- recommended for age 11-18 and college students
What is the cause of Haemophilus Meningitis?
- haemophilus influenza type B, or HIB
- gram negative bacillus
vaccine for Haemophilus meningitis?
Pathology for Haemophilus meningitis?
- pneumonia, epiglottitis, otitis media
- can cause meningitis
- prior to 1980's was the most prevalent cause of meningitis in 3-18 month olds
What is the cause of botulism?
- intoxication (ingest toxins)
- clostridium botulinum
- gram + endospore forming bacillus
- common in soil or water
- botulism toxin (botox) - exotoxin, neurotoxin; blocks the release of ACH at the NMJ; results in flaccid paralysis
source of botulism?
foods that are improperly canned; must pressure can to kill spores
pathology of botulism?
- onset 1-2 days
- starts in face and eventually diaphragm paralysis
treatment for botulism?
- antibody against botox
- neutralizes toxin
colonizes wound and releases toxins
spores in honey and corn syrup colonize GI tract
prevention of botulism?
- 20 min @ 80'C
- 10 min @ 90'C
- heat inactivates toxin
cause of tetanus?
- clostridium tetani
- gram positive
- spore forming bacillus
- tetanospasmin - exotoxin - blocks release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, state of constant tetanus
pathology of tetanus?
- onset - hours to a week
- lockjaw (trismus) one of first stages
- opisthonus - fully contracted, back arched
treatment for tetanus?
vaccination for tetanus?
- inactivated toxin
viral causes of nervous system disease
- viral encephalitis
- aseptic meningitis (non-bacterial)
What is the cause of rabies?
- rabies virus
- RNA virus
transmission of rabies?
- infected animal bite, scratches, and air
- it's the saliva that is infected
pathology of rabies
- virus infects skeletal muscle
- jumps NMJ to neuron and migrates up axon to CNS
symptoms of rabies
- first - pain, fever, malaise
- then - seizures, disorientation, hallucinations, hydrophobia (very painful to swallow so resistant to drink), paralysis, and death
treatment for rabies
- post exposure - intramuscular IgG (anti rabies antibodies) and follow with rabies vaccine
- pre exposure - vaccines
cause of polio
- polio virus
- 3 serotypes associated with disease
transmission of polio
ingest with fecal contaminated food and water (FCFW)
symptoms of polio
- asymptomatic (90%)
- minor polio (5%) fever, sore throat, malaise
- nonparalytic polio (2%) invade meninges & CNS; causes muscle spasms and back pain
- paralytic polio (2%) invades spinal cord and motor cortex; paralysis is result; diaphragm may be paralyzed causing difficult respiration
post polio syndrome
- occurs 30-40 years after bout of polio
- crippling degeneration of polio affected muscles
vaccination for polio
- trivalent - all 3 serotypes
- salk vaccine (IPV) inactivated
- Sabin vaccine (OPV) live attenuated, orally
- inflammation of brain
- increased intracranial pressure
- cause: multiple viruses including west nile virus (vector is mosquito and bird is the host)
- symptoms: most show no symptoms, some mild illness/symptoms w/ headache, body aches, skin rash, and swollen lymph nodes
- a few people will develop encephalitis w/ sever headache, can be fatal
- prevention: clothing, drain all stagnant water, bug spray
aseptic meningitis (non-bacterial)
- cause: many viruses
- symptoms: severe headache, low fever, nausea & vomiting, photosensitivity
- few days to a week to recover
fungal disease that affects CNS
- cause: cryptococcus neoformans; grows in nitrogen rich bird droppings (pigeons)
- transmission: inhalation of spores
- symptoms: usually asymptomatic to a mild pneumonia; immunocompromised develop meningitis
- treatment: antifungals 6-10 weeks
protozoal disease nervous system
- primary amebic meningo encephalitis (PAM)
- 2 forms- one of which is african sleeping sickness
- cause: trypanasoma brucei; T. rhodiense
- vector: tse tse fly
- symptoms: headaches, fever, behaviroal changes, coma, meningoencephalitis
primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)
- cause: naegleria fowleria; live in warm waters, in the bottom (muck)
- transmission: water up your nose, follws the olfactory tract to brain
- symptoms: sudden onset of headache, fever, nausea, vomiting and stiff neck; rapidly progress to lethary, confusion, and coma