Card Set Information
bacterial diseases of the nervous system
coverings of brain and spinal cord
inflammation, fluid pressures brain and spinal cord
What is the cause of meningococcal meningitis?
gram negative diplococci
pathogenic strain encapsulated
humans are natural carrier
What is the pathology of meningococcal meningitis?
transmission- resp. droplets or close contact
lipid A of LPS in cell wall trigger fever, vasodilation, inflammation and shock, severe headache, light sensitivity, nauseau/vomiting, nuchal rigidity
treatment for meningococcal meningitis?
antibiotics; possibly IV
vaccine for meningococcal meningitis?
recommended for age 11-18 and college students
What is the cause of Haemophilus Meningitis?
haemophilus influenza type B, or HIB
gram negative bacillus
vaccine for Haemophilus meningitis?
Pathology for Haemophilus meningitis?
pneumonia, epiglottitis, otitis media
can cause meningitis
prior to 1980's was the most prevalent cause of meningitis in 3-18 month olds
What is the cause of botulism?
intoxication (ingest toxins)
gram + endospore forming bacillus
common in soil or water
botulism toxin (botox) - exotoxin, neurotoxin; blocks the release of ACH at the NMJ; results in flaccid paralysis
source of botulism?
foods that are improperly canned; must pressure can to kill spores
pathology of botulism?
onset 1-2 days
starts in face and eventually diaphragm paralysis
treatment for botulism?
antibody against botox
colonizes wound and releases toxins
spores in honey and corn syrup colonize GI tract
prevention of botulism?
20 min @ 80'C
10 min @ 90'C
heat inactivates toxin
cause of tetanus?
spore forming bacillus
tetanospasmin - exotoxin - blocks release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, state of constant tetanus
pathology of tetanus?
onset - hours to a week
lockjaw (trismus) one of first stages
opisthonus - fully contracted, back arched
treatment for tetanus?
vaccination for tetanus?
viral causes of nervous system disease
aseptic meningitis (non-bacterial)
What is the cause of rabies?
transmission of rabies?
infected animal bite, scratches, and air
it's the saliva that is infected
pathology of rabies
virus infects skeletal muscle
jumps NMJ to neuron and migrates up axon to CNS
symptoms of rabies
first - pain, fever, malaise
then - seizures, disorientation, hallucinations, hydrophobia (very painful to swallow so resistant to drink), paralysis, and death
treatment for rabies
post exposure - intramuscular IgG (anti rabies antibodies) and follow with rabies vaccine
pre exposure - vaccines
cause of polio
3 serotypes associated with disease
transmission of polio
ingest with fecal contaminated food and water (FCFW)
symptoms of polio
minor polio (5%) fever, sore throat, malaise
nonparalytic polio (2%) invade meninges & CNS; causes muscle spasms and back pain
paralytic polio (2%) invades spinal cord and motor cortex; paralysis is result; diaphragm may be paralyzed causing difficult respiration
post polio syndrome
occurs 30-40 years after bout of polio
crippling degeneration of polio affected muscles
vaccination for polio
trivalent - all 3 serotypes
salk vaccine (IPV) inactivated
Sabin vaccine (OPV) live attenuated, orally
inflammation of brain
increased intracranial pressure
cause: multiple viruses including west nile virus (vector is mosquito and bird is the host)
symptoms: most show no symptoms, some mild illness/symptoms w/ headache, body aches, skin rash, and swollen lymph nodes
a few people will develop encephalitis w/ sever headache, can be fatal
prevention: clothing, drain all stagnant water, bug spray
aseptic meningitis (non-bacterial)
cause: many viruses
symptoms: severe headache, low fever, nausea & vomiting, photosensitivity
few days to a week to recover
fungal disease that affects CNS
cause: cryptococcus neoformans; grows in nitrogen rich bird droppings (pigeons)
transmission: inhalation of spores
symptoms: usually asymptomatic to a mild pneumonia; immunocompromised develop meningitis
: antifungals 6-10 weeks
protozoal disease nervous system
primary amebic meningo encephalitis (PAM)
2 forms- one of which is african sleeping sickness
cause: trypanasoma brucei; T. rhodiense
vector: tse tse fly
: headaches, fever, behaviroal changes, coma, meningoencephalitis
primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)
cause: naegleria fowleria; live in warm waters, in the bottom (muck)
: water up your nose, follws the olfactory tract to brain
: sudden onset of headache, fever, nausea, vomiting and stiff neck; rapidly progress to lethary, confusion, and coma