NUTR 225 Ch. 1

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NUTR 225 Ch. 1
2013-06-09 21:48:53
Nutrition 225 NUTR

Nutrition Final
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  1. Nutrition is...
    the study of food, including how food nourishes our bodies and how food influences our health
  2. Wellness is...
    The absence of disease physically, emotionally, occupationally, and spiritually.
  3. What are the critical components of wellness (2)?
    Nutrition and physical activity
  4. What are the food aspects of nutrition (6)?
    Consumption, Digestion, Absorption, Metabolism, Storage, Excretion
  5. What aspects of nutrition do we study?
    Psychological, food safety, global food supply, and cultural
  6. Nutrients
    Chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth and function
  7. What are the six essential nutrients found in food?
    carbohydrates, fats and oils, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
  8. Macronutrients
    nutrients required in relatively large amounts and provide us with energy; carbohydrates, fats and oils, proteins.
  9. Micronutrients
    nutrients required in smaller amounts; vitamins and minerals
  10. Kilocalorie
    Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1℃
  11. How do we measure energy?
    kilocalorie (kcal)
  12. Carbohydrates
    • 1) Primary source of fuel for the body
    • 2) provide 4 kcal/g
    • 3) found in grains (wheat, rice), vegetables,
    • 4) fruits, and legumes
  13. Fats and Oils
    • 1) composed of lipids
    • 2) provide 9 kcal/g
    • 3) source of fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids
  14. Proteins
    • 1) chains of amino acids
    • 2) 4 kcal/g, not primary energy source
    • 3) source of nitrogen
  15. Proteins are important for...
    • Building cells and tissues
    • Maintaining bones
    • Repairing damage
    • Regulating metabolism
    • Fluid balance
  16. Micronutrients
    • Vitamins and minerals
  17. Vitamins; Two types?
    • organic molecules that assist in regulating body processes
    • - Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K)
    • - Water-soluble vitamins (C and B)
  18. Minerals
    inorganic substances required for body processes
  19. Major minerals; How much is necessary?
    100mg/day of Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride.

    <100mg/day of iron, zinc, copper, iodine, and fluoride
  20. DRIs consist of four values
    • 1) Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
    • 2) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
    • 3) Adequate Intake (AI)
    • 4) Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)