NUTR 225 Ch. 3

Card Set Information

NUTR 225 Ch. 3
2013-06-07 16:36:41
Nutrition NUTR 225

Nutrition 225 Final
Show Answers:

  1. Food provides us with
    • 1) Energy for body processes
    • 2) Heat for body temperature regulation
    • 3) Building blocks for growth and maintenance of body tissues
  2. Hunger
    Physiological sensation to eat regulated by internal cues
  3. Appetite
    Psychological desire to eat; strong drive to eat even when we're not hungry
  4. Satiety
    The feeling of being full
  5. Anorexia
    Physiological need for food yet have no appetite
  6. Why is the hypothalamus important?
    Nerve cells in stomach and small intestine sense food and send message to hypothalamus to indicate if the stomach is full or empty.
  7. Hormones
    • chemicals produced in specialized glands that travel in the bloodstream to target organs in other parts of the body
    • - Some hormones stimulate hunger
    • - Some hormones produce satiety
  8. Goals of digestion
    • 1) Break these large molecules down to smaller molecules
    • 2) Absorb the smaller molecules into the cells of the body
  9. Atoms
    Smallest unit of matter; they bond together to form molecules
  10. Molecules
    • groups of atoms bonded in specific configurations
    • e.g.: H2O, CO2
  11. Cells
    the smallest unit of life
  12. Cell membrane
    • outer layer enclosing each cell of the body
    • -two layers of phospholipids
    • -long lipid "tails" face toward interior of membrane
    • -phosphate "heads" line the interior/exterior surfaces of the membrane
    • -cholesterol and proteins in membrane
  13. Cytoplasm
    liquid within the cell
  14. organelles
    • tiny structures that perform many different cellular functions
    • e.g.: nucleus, mitochondria
  15. Tissue
    • group of cells acting together to perform a common function
    • e.g.: muscle tissue, nervous tissue
  16. Organ
    • a sophisticated organization of tissues that perform a special function
    • e.g.: stomach, heart, brain
  17. Organ systems
    • group of organs working together for a particular function
    • e.g.: gastrointestinal system
  18. What are the processes food undergoes? And where does this take place?
    • 1) Digestion
    • 2) Absorption
    • 3) Elimination

    these processes occur in the gastrointestinal tract
  19. Gastrointestinal tract (GI)
    • series of organs arranged as a long tube through which the food passes.
    • Includes:
    • - Organs such as the stomach and intestines
    • - Sphincters: muscles that control the passage of material from one organ to the next
  20. Digestion
    • Process of breaking large food molecules down to smaller molecules.
    • 1) Mechanical digestion: the physical breakdown of food.

    2) Chemical digestion: enzymatic reactions that break down large food molecules
  21. Digestion Process
    • Mouth-> Chewing, salivary amylase, epiglottis, peristalsis
    • Stomach-> Gastric juice (HCl, Pepsin, Gastric lipase, Mucus), Chyme
    • Small Intestine-> Chemical digestion of chyme w/pancreatic enzymes and bile
    • Accessory organs-> Salivary glands, Liver(breaks fat into liquid), Pancreas(digestive enzymes/neutralize chyme), Gall bladder(stores bile)
  22. Absorption
    • The process of taking molecules across a cell membrane and into cells of the body.
    • Occur in three areas:
    • - Duodenum
    • - Jejunum
    • - Ileum
  23. Absorption Process
    • Water-soluble nutrients enter portal vein
    • Fat-soluble nutrients enter lymphatic vessels
  24. Elimination Process
    Large intestine-> undigested food, very little digestion, stored 12-24 hrs before elimination, water and nutrients are absorbed
  25. Digestion disorders
    • 1) Heartburn: HCl acid builds up in the esophagus
    • 2) Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): persistent heartburn
    • 3) Peptic ulcers: regions of the GI tract eroded by HCl and pepsin
    • 4) Diarrhea: food intolerance, infection of GI tract, stress, bowel disorders
    • 5) Constipation: No stool passes for 2+ days
    • 6) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  26. Celiac disease
    • Intolerance for gluten
    • - Can damage small intestine-> poor absorption of nutrients
    • - Diet lacking wheat, rye, barley
    • - May be genetic component to disease