NUTR 225 Ch. 11

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Author:
mynamebecait
ID:
222932
Filename:
NUTR 225 Ch. 11
Updated:
2013-06-07 18:05:30
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Nutrition NUTR 225 11
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Description:
Nutrition 225 Final
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  1. Underweight
    having too little body fat to maintain health
  2. Overweight
    having a moderate amount of excess body fat
  3. Obesity
    having an excess of body fat that adversely affects health
  4. Morbid obesity
    body weight exceeding 100% of normal, creating a very high risk for serious health complications
  5. Body Mass Index (BMI)
    • Ratio of person's weight to square of person's height.
    • - weight (kg)/height (m)squared
    • - between 18.5 and 30
  6. Body composition
    • Measurement of body fat and lean muscle mass
    • -underwater weighing, skinfold, bioelectrical impedance analysis, DXA, bod pod
  7. Fat distribution pattern; two types
    • measured by waist-to-hip, waist circumference
    • 1) apple-shaped- increased risk for chronic diseases (type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension)
    • 2) pear-shaped: no significant increased risk for chronic diseases
  8. Factors for gaining/losing weight (6)
    • 1) Energy intake vs. energy expenditure
    • 2) Genetic factors
    • 3) Composition of diet
    • 4) Childhood weight
    • 5) Behavioral factors
    • 6) Social factors
  9. Energy balance
    Energy intake = Energy expenditure
  10. Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
    • Energy expended to maintain basal, or resting, functions of the body
    • - 60-75% of total energy expenditure
    • - decreases with age, 3-5% per decade after age 30
  11. Factors affecting BMR
    • 75% non-genetic factors
    • 25% genetic heritage
  12. Physical activity
    • - 15-35% of daily energy expenditure
    • - The more muscle groups used, the greater the energy expenditure
  13. Thermic effect of food (TEF)
    • - Energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store food
    • - 5-10% of total expenditure
    • - Lowest for fat and highest for protein
  14. Thrifty gene theory
    • - Gene (or genes) causes people to be energetically thrifty
    • - People w/ this gene expend less energy than other people, and gain weight
    • - Has NOT been identified
  15. Set-point theory
    • - Each person's weight stays within a small range
    • - Body compensates for changes in energy balance
    • - Can change w/ time, as diet, activity levels vary over long period of time
  16. Leptin (protein)
    - Hormone produced by fat cells that causes reduced food intake, reduce weight, decrease body fat in mice
  17. Ghrelin (protein)
    • - Protein synthesized in the stomach
    • - Stimulates appetite by acting on the hypothalamus
  18. Peptide YY (protein)
    • - Produced in the GI tract
    • - Decreases appetite
    • - Obese people have lower levels when fasting
  19. Hunger vs. Appetite
    Hunger: physiologic drive or need to eat

    Appetite: a psychological desire to eat, often in the absence of hunger

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