P.e A2

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P.e A2
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  1. Pre Industrial/Popular recreation years
    1700-1800 18th Century
  2. Public school athleticism years
    1800-1920 19th & into 20th Century
  3. Rational recreation years
    1850-1950 nineteenth & into twentieth century
  4. State school years
    1870-Today end of 19th century into twentieth century
  5. Post Industrial years
    1800-Today 19th-20th Century
  6. Popular recreations
    • Pre-industrial Sports & pastimes associated mainly with lower class
    • Popular recreations reflected society, life & time in which it existed.
    • Activities often colourful & lively & supported by strict class system
    • Different classes sometimes shared activities (Cock fighting), did different activities (mob football LC & real tennis UC) or had different role in same activity (Runner LC sponsor UC)
  7. Characteristics of popular recreation
    • Courtly/popular-prodominantly 2 class society based on feudal system
    • Occasional-Free time for recreation on holy days & annual holidays
    • Rural-Before industrial revolution britan agricultural & rural
    • Natural facilities-Lack of technology purpose built facilities & money for the masses.
    • Wagering-Rags to riches LC & show off UC
    • Occupational- Work often became basis of sport
    • Local-Limited transport & communications
    • Festivals
    • Cruel/violent- Reflected harshness of 18th century rural life
    • Alcohol- often based around pubs & alcohol
    • No rules/simple/unwritten-Illiterate no NGB's only played locally.
  8. Bathing & Swimming effects on skill & health as a popular recreation
    • Upper Class:
    • Likely to increase skill & health
    • Lower Class:
    • As for upper class; Key role for hygiene
  9. Athletics effects on skill & health as a popular recreation
    • Upper class:
    • Pedestrianism required skill & would need & increase physical fitness thus health
    • Lower Class:
    • Pedestrianism- as for upper class; rural sports- predominantly for recreation
  10. Football effects on skill & health as a popular recreation
    • Upper Class:
    • Involvement unlikely so no impact
    • Lower Class:
    • Mob Football forceful rather than skilful; could be harmful with severe injuries & even fatalities.
  11. Cricket effects on skill & health as a popular recreation
    • Upper Class:
    • Outside & active during summer months so a skilful game with potential to improve health
    • Lower Class:
    • As for upper class
  12. Real tennis effects on skill & health as a popular recreation
    • Upper Class:
    • Skilful, potentially health-enhancing game for the elite.
    • Lower Class:
    • Not available for them. Played simple hand ball games (perhaps skilfully) for recreation
  13. Factors affecting participation in popular recreation
    • Class
    • Gender
    • Opportunity
    • Provision 
    • Esteem
  14. How gender affected participation in popular recreation
    • UC women played the pursued elitist pastimes (hawking). LC women participated in less sophisticated more uncouth activities (smock races)
    • Victorian era brought new attitudes especially for middle class women for whom physical activity was thought to be unsuitable, undignified & even dangerous.
    • 19th Century women later constrained by social attitudes & by lack of opportunity & provision.
  15. How class affected participation in Popular recreation
    • Predominantly 2 class society UC dominated LC
    • Also Merchant, Trading or Commercial class later became Middle class
    • UC had money for equipment facilities & transport, time to become skilful & societal status which gave them self-esteem.
  16. Activities of the upper class were often:
    • Sophisticated & Expensive
    • Rule based with dress code & etiquette
    • Linked with patronage
    • Distant due to opportunity to travel
  17. Activities of the lower class were often:
    • Simple, accessible & inexpensive
    • Unwritten rules, often violent & uncivilised
    • linked with occupation
    • local due to lack of travel opportunity
  18. Role & attitude of the church on popular recreation
    • Henry 8th broke with catholic church in Rome in 1534. Had no desire to change people's religious, social or sporting habits.
    • Change came as result of English reformation (religious movement called for reform of Roman Catholic Church)
    • Puritanism emerged. Puritans opposed excess, unruliness, spontaneity, swearing & drinking associated with contemporary recreations. Believed idleness & playfulness were sinful & that salvation could only be earned through life of prayer, self-discipline & moderation
    • Bleak time for popular sports & pastimes
    • Puritan ethic gave way to work ethic and spreading protestantism, whereby leisure pursuits were acceptable only in that they restored people for work.
  19. 18th Century peasant life
    • Life tough for LC, sports & pastimes reflected harshness
    • Village house & pub central to village life & focus for community leisure activities. 
    • Pub hosted bear & badger baiting, dog fighting & prize (bear fist) fighting as well as less barbaric games such as billiards, quoits, bowls & skittles
    • Landlord's often provided prizes for sporting matches & primitive equipment for ball games in order to stimulate interest & boost profit.
    • Mainly late 18th & early 19th century sports clubs used public house as their base most famous Hambledon cricket club at bat & ball inn  where game of cricket nurtured between 1750-1780.
  20. Impact of popular recreation to sport today
    • Direct links:
    • Illegally staged bare fist fighting
    • Blood sports such as badger baiting & dog fights
    • both declined as law & order increased but never completely died out. newspapers still report blood activities with betting central feature. Fox hunting continues amid debate.
    • Swimming:
    • Lake based swimming clubs
    • Continued motives Health, recreation & survival
    • Athletics:
    • April 2002 5 British athletes repeated unique feat of Captain Robert Barcley Allardice; ran 1000 miles in 1000 hours 200 years ago
    • Rural sports including races & tests of strength continue at some summer fates & fairs along with traditional olympics
    • Football:
    • Surviving ethnic sports such as Ashbourne football game 
    • Occasional violent behaviour by players or spectators in modern game
    • Cricket:
    • Game was for all classes, still is today
    • Tennis:
    • Real tennis only for exclusive today largely the same.
  21. Rational recreation in Post industrial Britian
    • NEW Middle class became dominant social & sporting force
    • rural peasants who migrated to towns to find factory work became working class provisions & opportunities fell way below that of social superiors 
    • In space of 100 years sport & recreation in England changed from free-ranging rural activity to enclosed urban display for spectators
  22. Characteristics of rational recreation & cultural factors that influenced their development
    • Control of gambling-Increased law & order
    • Regular-Increased free time & improved transport
    • Amateurism/professionalism-Class Structure/Spectatorism
    • Purpose built facilities- Technological advancement
    • Regional-Improved transport
    • Exclusive-Social class & gender discrimination 
    • Codification-Business & administration skills/Ex-public school boys
    • Fair play-Public school influence
    • Urban-The Revolutions
    • Respectable-Middle class influence
  23. Comparison of rational recreation characteristics to Popular recreation characteristics.
    • Codification-No written rules
    • Regular-Occasional 
    • Purpose built facilities-Natural facilities
    • Regional-local
    • Exclusive/Elitist-Courtly/Popular
    • Control of gambling-Wagering
    • Fair play/Respectable - Cruel & Violent
    • Urban - Rural
  24. comparison of pre and post industrial societal factors that influenced sport
    • Harsh rural life-Civilised lifestyle
    • Illiterate-Administration & business skills
    • Transport & communications limited-Improved Transport & communications 
    • Agricultural-Industrial
    • Seasonal time-Machine time
    • Lack of technology- Technology advancement 
    • Uncivilised/Lack of policing system-Law & order increased
    • Two class society-Middle class emerged
  25. Social & cultural factors influencing the development of rational recreation
    • Changing the views of the church (against excess of pop rec, accept moderation of rat rec)
    • Amateurism & Professionalism
    • Emergence of Middle class - changes of attitudes, tastes, manners & expectations
    • Working conditions- Improved over time impacted on health & participation
    • Increased free time- Saturday half day, early closing movement, paid holidays for working classes 1890's
    • Transport Revolution- impact of railways, increased oppurtunites for participation & the development & spread of sport
    • Place & status of women- Increased opportunity & partipation by middle class women by end of century, fewer opportunities for working class
  26. First half of the nineteenth century
    • loss of space
    • Shift from seasonal to machine time
    • 12 hour days no time to 'play'
    • poverty & low wages
    • Loss of rural patronage
    • sudden urbanisation, overcrowding & poor living conditions
    • Increased law & order with organisations such as police force & RSPCA
    • Break out of cholera killed 31,000 Britons in 1832
    • Emerged of middle class who needed to employee large work force and started to shape how things should be done.
    • Church impact
    • Holidays reduced from 47 days in 1761 to just 4
    • by 1830's stage coaches out of business opening of Manchester to Liverpool railway marked beginning of dramatic new age for sport
  27. Industrial Patronage
    Provision of social, recreational & sporting opportunities by wealthy industrialists for their workers.
  28. Industrial revolution & other key social & cultural factors
    • Industrial revolution went hand in hand with new technology, farming & transport methods, urbanisation & new class structure
    • When rural peasants initially moved from countryside to towns opportunities decreased
    • Life was bleak they became slaves to the factory system machine time & their employers.
    • Those out of work faced life on streets of decay, glom, hopelessness & poverty
    • Formation & organisation of an effective workforce became a fierce struggle to lift the urban working classes from both oppression & depression 
    • Last thing on the minds of working class was sport & recreation. 
    • Second half of the nineteenth century offered increase in opportunity & provision for working class due to industrial patronage, increased free time & more public facilities such as parks
  29. Second half of Nineteenth century
    • More space to play e.g. public parks 
    • Shorter working day & week including free Saturday afternoons & paid annual holiday 
    • Improved wages
    • Increased industrial patronage- including annual exertion trip to the seaside by the end of the century
    • Improved living & working conditions as a result of government factory acts 
    • Improved hygiene as a result of public baths
    • Improved transport & communications
    • Changing social attitudes
    • Increased law & order
    • Support from the church
  30. Transport revolution (railways)
    • significantly increased chance to take part in sport & to watch
    • Main factor sport spread throughout Britain 
    • Distant teams could play each other and bring supporters 
    • Caused a standardised set of rules to be needed
    • Speeded up the development of leagues, cups & competitions
    • Enabled people to get to the countryside
    • Meant kindly factory owners could lay on excursions to the seaside
  31. Class system
    Strict class system still underpinned & operated in British society. Class determined income, housing, lifestyle & sporting opportunities. Determined status as amateur or professional.
  32. Saturday half day and early closing movement
    • Early closing movement series of bills through parliament, sought to reduce working hors particularly in shops
    • Excessive working hours increasingly thought to be damaging health & well being of workers
    • Between 1879-1890 most workers had been granted their half-day of freedom on Saturday afternoon. Created nationwide time slot for playing & watching sport
    • By 1870 some workers had 2 or 3 days of paid holiday a year. By 1890 a week paid holiday was common
    • Wagers for industrial workers had increased & more third rail class fares had become available
    • Increases in free time were part of a process that started to give healthier, balanced & potentially active lifestyle to the urban working class.
  33. Changing view of the church
    • Medieval period & Puritanism:
    • Church opposed many popular sports at this time 
    • Puritans of the 1600's were against the spontaneity & the freedom of traditional sports & pastimes believing that only the prayerful, sober, quiet & hardworking should be saved
    • From 1700-1850 and Protestantism:
    • 1700's church provided feast days & space for community gatherings
    • By 1800's they criticised drunken excess, violence & mischief linked with popular recreations & withdrew their support
    • Resulted in decline in community participation
    • During 19th century Christianity & the protestant work ethic became established
    • The 1850's evangelism & social christianity:
    • By mid 19th Century newly ordained ex public school & university men started to promote sports & games in their parishes 
    • The YMCA encouraged participation in rational sports by young clerks.
  34. Bathing & Swimming effects on skill & health as a rational recreation
    • Upper and Middle Class:
    • Increased skill & health for middle class took to & developed rational swimming in urban baths
    • Working Class:
    • Initially functional to combat disease-'Penny Baths' provided in towns
  35. Athletics effects on skill and health as a rational recreation
    • All Class:
    • Opportunities to increase skill & health for both classes as their respective governing bodies were formed.
    • Note ongoing existence of some early rural sports & the beginnings of urban athletics meetings for both classes, would impact on health & skill.
  36. Football and it's effects on skill & health as a rational recreation
    • Upper & middle Class:
    • Amateur involvement often in exclusive teams such as Corinthian Casuals
    • Working Class:
    • Mainly as spectators so no physical health or skill development
    • Opportunities for a few very skillfull players to become professionals
  37. Cricket and it's effects on skill & health as a rational recreation
    • All Classes:
    • Skilful with potential to increase health as an outdoor summer active game.
  38. Lawn tennis & it's effects on skill & health as a rational recreation
    • Upper & middle class: 
    • Skilful & potentially health enhancing for middle class; new opportunities for women
    • Working class: 
    • Limited access for lower class until club & park provision developed.
  39. Amateurism & Professionalism
    • Influenced the nature & development of rationalised sports & pastimes 
    • Class decided status as Amateur or professional
    • Middle class amateur gentlemen took part for the love of the game & intrinsic rewards
    • Working class men who could not afford to play games for enjoyment sometimes had a chance to earn money as a professional.
  40. Women in victorian Britain
    • Early victorian Britain it was thought inappropriate for a middle class lady to exercise, sweat or display her body
    • Meant physical activity was effectively outlawed
    • Over-exertion thought harmful for women
    • Invention of lawn tennis in 1870's became a route to social & physical freedom for women
    • Those who continued to object on the ground of immodesty & bad taste increasingly had to counter new argument of good health through exercise
    • Appropriate clothing was designed which encouraged freer movement & a gradual relaxation of traditional victorian stuffiness
    • Working class women different set of rules to live by & they had neither opportunity nor provision for leisure time activity.
  41. Varying opportunities for participation in rational recreation
    • Class & gender continued to affect participation along with provision, opportunity & esteem
    • Emergence of middle class particularly significant they invented bicycle & lawn tennis Drove rationalisation & development of most sport
    • Working class had to wait for opportunities to participate at community level, perhaps via factory or local authority public park provision
  42. Rational recreation impact on and links to today
    • Still have mainly decentralised, amateur & voluntary way of organising & administering sport in the UK especially at lower levels 
    • Direct result of formation of NGB's& many sports clubs over 100 years ago
    • Only recently have we started moving towards more professional approach to sport at all levels
    • Ethics of sportsmanship linked to rational recreation
  43. Characteristics of nineteenth century public schools & their impact
    • Boys- great energy & enthusiasm to be channelled into games
    • Endowed- Schools received large gifts or money & so could build facilities or employ more assistant managers and professional coaches
    • Gentry-Influential families brought status & money & influenced the types of activities brought into the schools
    • Boarding- Time available increasingly spent playing games
    • Expanding-As numbers increased housing were formed became hub of games
    • Non local-Great variety of regional games adopted & adapted by individual schools
    • Spartan-Harsh treatment & living conditions prepared boys for the rigours of competitive sport & adult life
    • Fee paying- Fees could develop facilities
    • Controlled by trustee's- trustees Influential people keen to promote school so keen to invest in sporting success.
  44. Clarendon report key points
    • Queen Victoria appointed commission to examine all aspects of the 9 leading public schools of England following complaints about finances, buildings & management of Eton college
    • Report account of public school life researched by Earl of Clarendon & team of commissioners
    • Published in 1864
    • Included many criticisms & general & individual advice for each school 
    • Gave detailed picture of life in the 9 schools & attempted to enrich day-to-day academic & residential life for pupils
    • Concluded that while each school was somewhat different status of games in most of 9 schools extremely high
    • arguably prototype ofsted inspection report
  45. Three development stages of athleticism
    • Schools institutions in their own right often out in the countryside & with their own rules & customs
    • Public schools didn't exist in isolation. Reflected changes happening in society
    • Could be argued they caused social change certainly in terms of sport & recreation 
    • By mid-nineteenth Century:
    • RSPCA successfully reducing cruelty against animals
    • Police & changing tastes & manners were reducing number of bare fist fights
    • In schools many headmasters were keen to be seen as enlightened. They wanted their schools to be more refined & cultured & less primitive & wild. Part of what sociologists called civilising process.
  46. Civilising Process
    Improvements relating to more refined or sophisticated behaviour & social organisation & relationships
  47. Stage 1
    • 1790-1824
    • Boy culture, bullying & brutality
    • end of 18th century english society contrasted the high culture of the regency period fashion with the low culture & apparent brutality of blood sports & bare fist fighting. Both ends mirrored in public schools
    • Time of 'boy culture'. confrontational behaviour of French & American revolutions was copied by public school boys if things didn't go their way
    • Absence of police force meant any unrest was controlled by army
    • All recreational activities were organised by the boys for pure enjoyment & relieve boredom of academic work
    • Masters 'Ruled with the rod' in lessons but had no interest or influence outside the classroom
    • Boys took park in all sorts of mischief such as trespass, truancy, poaching & fighting
    • In both society at large & individual schools control was lost & tyranny & chaos resulted
    • Public school expansion increasing number of boys enrolled bringing with them customs & recreations from all over the country.
  48. Public School expansion & the first 'Melting pot'
    • Customs & games from different areas were mixed & moulded into schoolboy games that were to become future traditions 
    • Sporting culture of each school began to be established along with need for increased housing & more social control
    • Games & sports would provide medium for social control, meanwhile severe discipline by masters & resentful rebellion & hooligan behaviour by boys shaped the norm
    • Time of 'institutionalised popular recreation' with activities ranging from childlike to barbaric 
    • Cricket was immediately adopted by schools while fox hunting was adapted to hare & hounds
    • Wall at Eton & cloisters at Charterhouse were birthplaces for unique & ferocious games of mob football
    • Boys would also hire boats, play 'fives' & other ball games against suitable walls, swim in natural bating places such as rivers & ponds & explore the countryside
  49. Codify
    Collect together & organise rules & procedures
  50. Social control
    Establishment of order, stability & good behaviour
  51. Cult
    Obsession or craze with the playing of team games
  52. Nature of the games in stage 1
    Institutionalised popular recreation; reflection of society; activities ranged from childlike to barbaric
  53. Status of games in stage 1
    No official rank, position or status for sports & games. Informal games important to most boys while largely ignored by teachers
  54. Organisation of games in stage 1
    For the boys by the boys, no master involvement outside classroom. Unplanned, informal or limited levels of organisation.
  55. Technical development in stage 1
    Simple, naturally occurring facilities and limited 'local' rules with simple equipment
  56. Social relationships in stage 1
    Widespread bullying & brutality with distrust & poor relationships
  57. Values in stage 1
    'Every man for himself' & survival of the fittest no specific values linked to sport.
  58. Stage 2
    • 1828-1842
    • Dr Thomas Arnold & Social Control
    • mid nineteenth century time for change both in society & public schools
    • Parliament & laws changing e.g laws banning animal cruelty
    • Transport & communications drastically improving notably due to railways
    • With life & society becoming more orderly freedom & wild escapades of stage 1 became more & more out of place
    • Dr Thomas Arnold used games as a vehicle for establishing social control:
    • Made chapel the school's spiritual & symbolic centre. Established a new moral code better suited to increasing civilised society 
    • Established more trusting & sympathetic relationship with the sixth form. Masters gradually adopted roles of mentor & guide
    • Raised status of sixth form & increased their discipline. required them to be positive role models & his 'police force' around school.
    • Enabled Arnold's primary objective of delivering the Christian message to be achieved
    • as by product status, regularity & organisation of games also increased
    • House system grew as schools expanded. Houses became focus of boys personal, social, recreational & sporting existence
    • Games of inter-house Cricket, Football/Rugby kept boys out of trouble in day & sent them to bed exhausted 
    • Playground became central feature of public school life
  59. Dr Thomas Arnold's main aims
    • Reform behaviour of the boys
    • Reform severity of punishments imposed by masters
    • Reform the role of the sixth form 
    • Reform the academic curriculum 
    • Muscular christianity
  60. Muscular Christianity
    Arnold's main aim was to produce christian gentlemen & preach good moral behaviour. Muscular christianity mixuture of godliness & manliness or the belief in having a strong & fit body to match a robust & healthy soul. It was fine to play sport & play hard but always for the glory of god-Not for it's own sake or any extrinsic values that could be acheived.
  61. Nature of the games in stage 2
    Games reformed along with schools in which they existed. Phases saw the transmission from popular recreation to rational recreations
  62. Status of the game in stage 2
    both schools & games grew in status as they opened themselves up to the reforms that were happening in society at large.
  63. Organisation of the games in stage 2
    Schools & games became more organised especially with the growth of the house system.
  64. Technical development in stage 2
    More regular play on inter-house basis. Games became more structured with specialised kit, equipment & facilities.
  65. Social Relationships in stage 2
    Improving relationships & restrictions on brutality & bullying
  66. Values in stage 2
    Games used to achieve social control.
  67. Stage 3
    • 1842-1914
    • The 'cult' of athleticism
    • From 1850 team games were increasingly made compulsory & became formally assimilated into the curriculum for public schools 
    • Specialist facilities constructed
    • Land was brought & school relocated purposefully to acquire more space for team games.
    • Games earned exceptionally high status in all of the leading public schools. No longer as a vehicle for establishing social control but for a vehicle for developing the character or boys that played them
    • Aim of team games now was to develop qualities such as loyalty, leadership, honour, courage & manliness
    • Second melting pot beginning to operate, mixing of games & traditions from variety of schools up to Uni. resulted in standardised game or system of play
    • The role & impact of games-playing Oxbridge graduates returning to their schools as assistant managers was important. Employed as academic teacher but often as a result of their games playing prowess
    • What had been an embarrassment to public school headmasters - games & athletic pursuits - became their pride.
  68. Athleticism
    • Combination of physical endeavour (trying hard) with moral integrity (mix of honour, truthfulness & sportsmanship)
    • All rounder
    • Team player
    • Honour
    • Leader
    • Etiquette
    • T
    • I
    • C
    • I
    • Sportsmanship
    • Manliness
  69. Nature of the games in stage 3
    Rationalised & respectable
  70. Status of the games in stage 3
    Games played obsessively as a 'cult' proportions by many boys & masters. They were often compulsory each day.
  71. Organisation of games in stage 3
    Highly organised and fully codified at a time when many NGB's were being established
  72. Technical development in stage 3
    Fully technically developed with kit & specialist facilities, skill rather than force & specialist coaching in some sports e.g. cricket
  73. Social relationships in stage 3
    More friendly between boys & masters and less bullying among boys.
  74. Values in stage 3
    Games played for the development of character
  75. Ex public school boys became
    • Vicars/Priests- Supporting their parishioners in the formation of youth clubs & parish teams
    • Parents-Influencing own children, often sending them to their old school
    • Army officers-Increasing the morale & fitness of their soldiers, taking British games abroad
    • Community members- Establishing, running & playing for local sports clubs
    • Teachers-Often in the schools they had attended as boys
    • Community leaders/politicians-Perhaps in local government or donating money to the town 
    • Industrialists-Keen to spread the values of athleticism at their work force
  76. Public schools influenced
    • Other schools (copied Clarendon 'nine')
    • Universities (Melting pot)
    • Organisations (Governing bodies)
    • Regularity of play (increased standards & performance)
    • Building of specialists facilities
    • Festival days (e.g sports day rivalled speech day in school calendar) 
    • Fields (extensive playing fields created & maintained)
  77. Athleticism in girls' public & private schools
    • Delay in opportunities for upper & middle class girls because:
    • Traditional role of women- education of females was regarded as threat to the behavioural norms of society
    • Anxiety over the wearing of revealing clothing
    • Status of women in society- girls schools focused mainly on music, dancing & posture. not considered necessary to give girls same opportunities as boys
    • Thought inappropriate for women to be competitive or exuberant
    • Medical concerns-believed strenuous physical activity was medically dangerous & could complicate or even prevent child-bearing
    • Concerns girls wouldn't be able to cope with strenuous physical activity due to their perceived physical inferiority
    • Fewer prominent personalities to match boys' school heads such as Dr Thomas Arnold
  78. Impact of physical activity in stage 1 then and now
    • Then:
    • Informal & unofficial. Many activities became institutionalised & took place both in school grounds & surrounding countryside, in free time outside of lesson time. Usually casual and/or spontaneous & both adopted & adapted. Invented to suit natural facilities in schools
    • Now:
    • Limited direct impact from stage 1 to now. Maintenance of traditional football games such as the wall game at Eton College
  79. Impact on young people in stage 1 then and now
    • Then:
    • Young people had opportunities to develop independence & self-sufficiency. however institutionalised bullying linked with hooligan behaviour & the prefect/fagging system, poor relationships & severe punishments. 
    • Now:
    • Limited direct impact more indirect as a stage on route to athleticism
  80. Impact of physical activity in stage 2 then & now
    • Then:
    • Part of the process of social control, sports & pastimes became more controlled & less violent and/or spontaneous. Played more regularly & in school grounds with trespass reduced. Growing programme of games & individual activities played on an inter-house basis
    • Now: 
    • House system still central to organisation in many schools today particularly individual boarding schools.
  81. Impact on young people in stage 2 then and now
    • Then:
    • Games used to establish social control in Rugby school. Dr Arnold required Christian attitudes & better behaviour especially from the sixth form to whom he gave responsibility. Arnold also keen to change behaviour of the boys, severity of punishments imposed by masters, role of sixth form, academic curriculum & the relationships of boys & masters from mutual antagonism to mutual trust & respect
    • Now:
    • Limited direct impact more indirect impact as a stage on route to athletiticism
  82. Impact of physical activity in stage 3 then and now
    • Then:
    • Organisation- codification & regular fixtures including establishment of inter-school fixtures, leagues, cups & competitions such as public school championships. Formation of NGB's by old boys. Encouraged by headmaster. Time space & expertise available. Impact of university melting pot on standardisation of rules.
    • Now: 
    • Some of the old established competitions still exist. Participation in physical activity considered important for healthy balanced lifestyle
  83. Impact on young people in stage 3 then & now
    • Then:
    • character development:
    • Physical-daily participation increased health & skill levels
    • Intellectual-Development of organisational, administrative & management skills
    • Emotional-Need for both independence & teamwork
    • Social-loyalty to house, school & country. Fixtures with local clubs & other schools giving opportunities for friendships
    • Also:
    • Fair play
    • Appreciation of value of healthy exercise & fresh air
    • Participation helped to develop 'all rounders' who were socially acceptable & respected
    • Competitive experience useful in increasingly competitive society
    • Old boy societies established-financial generosity
    • Now:
    • Pe in national curriculum still focuses on development of whole child
    • Life similarly competitive today as competitive sport making a come back in state schools
    • Old boys' and girls' societies still in existence
  84. Impact of participation in stage 3 then and now
    • Then:
    • Massive impact- Daily participation compulsory in many public schools
    • Full staff involvement
    • Now:
    • Similar in some independent schools today
    • KS3 focuses on participation & healthy balanced lifestyles.
  85. Bathing & swimming in stage one
    Informal bathing in natural facilities during summer months. Mainly for recreation
  86. Bathing & swimming in stage 2
    More regular & regulated bathing for hygiene safety & recreation. Increasingly thought to be beneficial as part of a healthy lifestyle.
  87. Bathing & swimming in stage 3
    Increased technical development with changing huts, diving boards, purpose built facilities and competitions. Swimming masters for teaching & to oversee safety.
  88. Athletics in stage 1
    Informal running & exploring the countryside. paper chase (hare & hounds) linked to trespass.
  89. Athletics in stage 2
    Trespass restricted or banned Hare & hounds and steeple chase continued in more formal style.
  90. Athletics in stage 3
    Steeple chase & cross country running; Annual sports day as major sporting & social occassion.
  91. Football in stage 1
    mob games and the first melting pot of activty form home.
  92. Football in stage 2
    More formalised football rules for individual schools. Inter-house competitions.
  93. Football in stage 3
    Formal football association (FA) or rugby football union (RFU) rules along with traditional games at individual schools. 'Colours', Caps, inter-school fixtures.
  94. Cricket in stage 1
    Transferred directly into the public schools due to its non violent nature, rule structure & upper class involvement in society.
  95. Cricket in stage 2
    Cricket encouraged with massive inter-house participation.
  96. Cricket in stage 3
    Continued technical development such a professional coaching, 'colours', caps & inter-school fixtures
  97. Tennis in stage 1
    Informal hand & ball games against suitable available walls & buildings were referred to as 'fives' or 'tennis' (lawn tennis not yet invented)
  98. Tennis in stage 2
    Some 'fives' courts built though still an informal activity; game of racquets developing as more formal alternative; also squash racquets.
  99. Tennis in stage 3
    Fives continued as recreational game; racquets a more formal game of higher status. Lawn tennis comparatively low status in boys' schools, very popular as summer game in girls public schools.
  100. opportunity on mass participation
    • Disposable income
    • Ability, skill, health or fitness or playing standard
    • The amount of time available after work & other commitments
    • Do you actually want to take part? are suitable & appealing activities available?
  101. Opportunity on sporting excellence
    • Funding & financial support
    • Skill level & performance lifestyle
    • Chance to train full time
    • Whether the individuals will choose to make the sacrifices  & give the all round commitment needed to get to the top.
  102. Provision on Mass participation
    • The presence or absence of suitable equipment/facilities
    • Access e.g. for wheelchairs if necessary 
    • Availability of suitable transport 
    • Suitable & available clubs, activities, leagues, competitions or courses nearby
    • Right coaching at right level by suitably qualified staff
    • Well maintained & equipped private & clean changing & social areas.
  103. Provision on sportingexcellence
    • Availability of world class facilities & equipment
    • Availability of sport science & other high tech support
    • Distance from or access to high performance NAtional institute centres. Warm whether or high altitude training venues for athletes
    • Suitable & regular competitions with & against other high level performers. 
    • The right highly qualified experienced coaches.
    • Performance lifestyle advice & a holistic approach to excellence.
  104. Esteem on Mass participation
    • Self confidence & self belief which influences self perception
    • Respect from others & social acceptance of everyone's 'right' to take part in any chosen activity
    • Positive or Negative perception of certain physical activities
    • Status in society for example whether from a  disadvantaged group.
  105. Esteem on sporting excellence
    • Self confidence & self belief which impact on performance
    • Respect from others- Including team mates, opponents & the media
    • Recent results (good and/or bad) and national & international ranking.
    • Status in the sporting world
  106. bathing & swimming as a popular recreation
    • In Middle Ages bathing for pleasure was common especially on hot summer days
    • As well as a natural playground the river provided a ready supply of food a means of transport & a place to wash.
    • River was the commercial centre of an area
    • With work, play and the river so inter-related learing to swin for safety/survival became a necessity
    • Roman nobility would sometimes sponsor outstanding lower class swimmers to represent them in wager races
  107. The extent to which swimming & bathing had popular characteristics
    • Courtly &/or popular: Both classes would participate but not together
    • Occasional: Medium extent, bathing was regular in the summer 
    • Rural: Yes to a great extent- also in unpolluted urban rivers
    • Natural built facilities: Yes to great extent in ponds, rivers, lakes in 1784 first public swimming bath created in London
    • Wagering: Medium extent- Not widespread but probably informally.
    • Occupational: Medium extent- There were some swimming teachers who taught for money
    • Local: Yes to a great extent
    • Cruel/violent: To very limited or no extent
    • No written/simple rules: Yes to great extent- swimming was functional
  108. Bathing & swimming in public schools
    • At beginning of 19th century swimming in public schools was spontaneous & unorganised.
    • Boys swam in natural facilities to have fun & wash.
    • Brought culture to school bathing in free time with no master input or supervision
    • As century progressed & athleticism developed swimming became more structured & regulated. Natural facilities were transformed into major bathing facilities with changing huts, diving boards, swimming instructors & competitions
    • Headmasters increasingly viewed swimming as a necessary athletic as well as safe & hygienic pursuit & they followed contemporary fashion in believing water immersion to be therapeutic.
    • organised lessons & regular competitions became established in the second half of the century
    • Safety was vital - a well-maintained & safe bathing place gave god impression at a time of stiff competition between schools. Some schools invested in purpose-built baths.
    • In comparison to major team games however the status of swimming & bathing was limited.
  109. Bathing as a rational recreation in urban industrialised towns
    • Public baths in urban industrialised towns:
    • Helped to stop the spread of disease 
    • Were eventually used for washing, recreation & sport
    • The development of bathing in industrialised towns: 
    • Towns grew & became overcrowded as a result of industrialisation   - hygiene was awful 
    • With industrialisation many rivers & water supplies became polluted & unsuitable for washing
    • 2 major outbreaks of cholera rampaged through the country in 1832 & 1849, killing thousands & leaving countless families without a breadwinner
    • As only wealthy people could afford bathrooms at home and rivers became increasingly unsafe for poorer people to use for washing central government had to take a stand. 
    • Public baths were built to improve public health
    • Wash house act of 1846 allowed local authorities to apply for grants to improve public washing facilities
    • Most major towns built a public bath which often included hot & cold water baths and/or a plunge baths as well as a public as house with laundry & drying facilities
    • Baths had first & second class facilities, meant working class could afford one penny entrance fee.
    • Most loans settled quickly and this attempt to encourage regular bathing to prevent the spread of disease & to increase labour efficiency seemed to pay off as work efficiency increase & absenteeism from ill health decreased
    • Plunge baths for swimming recreationally added later
  110. Amateur swimming association
    • Formed in 1884
    • Middle class swimmers were initially determined to exclude the lower class. By the 1880s however swimming & water polo clubs were becoming established for the working class with the grudging support of the ASA
  111. Swimming today
    • recommended & popular since easy on joints as a non weight bearing activity &  lifelong physical activity
    • Factors that have helped develop swimming & might increase participation: 
    • Pool technology
    • Improved material technology for clothing, increase times, breaks records & increases interest in sport
    • Leaisure pools offering family enterteinment with flumes, wave machines etc.
    • Blue falg beaches  indicating that water is safer/more pleasent for bathing
    • Contined awareness of saftey
    • Antenatal and parent & toddler/baby classes, aqua areobics etc
    • Government targets for more pools, upgrades of existing pools & plans for more olympic & 50 metre pools
    • Growth in number of health clubs with spas, swimming facilities & good chnaging provision
    • Government initiative for free enrty to pools
    • Success & inspriation of swimmers such as Michael Phelps, Rebecca Adlington at olympics & Eleanor Simmonds at paralympics.
    • Increasing popularity & success of triathlon events
    • Specific barriers that might be a barrier to participation in swimming today:
    • Nature of activity (individual & in water) some might prefer more social activities
    • Esteem-Embarressment or limited confidence due to poor body image
    • Limited media coverage
    • Cultural factors/ethnicity e.g. reluctance to take part by some Asian females.
    • Risk & pollution associated with sea & rivers 
  112. Athletics as a popular recreation
    • Organisation was basic with rules being simple, unwritten & passed on by word of mouth
    • Drinking & play closely associated
    • Annual village fair, parish feast or christmas celebration was an important time of community merriment. 
    • Weekly market social & sporting as well
    • People needing work would go to the nearest hiring or 'mop' fair.
    • Village wakes associated with praise & worship
    • followed by festivity & feasting. Great social occasion bringing all parts of the community together. 
    • Opportunities for men to test their strength, speed & virility more playfully they'd try & catch pigs with soapy tails & compete in whistling & grinning contests
    • Peasant women would also race
    • Prizes generally of practical use e.g. shirts, smocks, hats, cheese or joints of meat
    • Other than these gatherings peasants had little opportunity for sports & pastimes.
    • Local events associated with all kinds of excess such as drinking, blood sport & promiscuity
    • Reformed church frowned upon traditional wakes, By mid 19th century fetes & tea parties were respectable alternatives. 
  113. Pedestrianism- It's nature, development & status
    • From late 17th century footman were employed as messengers or as competitive runners
    • Gentry patrons were their promoters. They looe=ked after the lower class runners, set up races & provided 'purses'. Bet on outcome of their employees
    • Pedestrian contests became huge festival occasions & great spectator attractions that were highly organised & structured
    • Pedestrianism was a simple & cheap activity to take part in & to stage
    • AS cheating became common the activity fell into disrepute. Cheating included match fixing & violence among the participants & the crowd
    • Gentleman amateurs competed to test themselves
    • Wagering & prizes for participants
    • Associated attractions included horse racing
  114. Athletic sports days
    • School sports days represented an era of technical advancement, more friendly social relationships between boys & masters and a developing interest in skilfulness over brute force
    • Useful day for headmaster to proudly display his school & to tout for financial support
    • Highly organised with elaborate ribboned programmes, press coverage, large numbers of spectators & often a military band
  115. Value & status of athletics in public schools
    As century progressed the character-building values of athleticism such as teamwork trust leadership loyalty courage determination & sportsmanship so easily linked to football, rugby & cricket were also considered achievable through athletics. Public school boys represented their house so developing teamwork, loyalty & leadership. Trust, courage & determination could be seen in relay events & challenging long distance & cross country events.
  116. Athletics as a rational recreation
    Steady urbanisation of england ed first to the end of rural fairs & then to professional athletics becoming established in the big industrial cities.Lower classes used running as a source of income even though winning were small by pre victorian standards Expoiltation was widespread as it was with pedestrianism This included: Roping (holding back in order to loose(, Running to the book (disguising one's form to keep a generous handicap), Ringing in (where performers conspiered to size the handicap unfairl)First purpose built track were constructed in late 1830's & by 1850 most major cities had a facility. Carefully measured tracks led to more stingent time keeping & the begining of record keeping so by mid century up to 25,000 people would watch & wager on one race.
  117. amateurism, professionalism & the exclusion clause
    Amateurism & professionalism was linked to class & status before the titles were linked to whether a performer was paid or not. The Amateur athletics club was set up to later be replaced by the Amateur athletics association
  118. The modern Olympic Games
    • inspired by sport in English public schools
    • Baron Pierre de Coubertin started the modern olympics in 1896
    • Games aimed to foster patriotism, athleticism & friendship between nations
    • By the time games came to London in 1908 de Coubertin's original ideals had largely been crushed. International sport had become both an agent of international in a world moving towards war & a means of reviving national moral
    • Public school ideal of playing sport honourably and for it's own sake had been lost. The gentlemen amateur did not compete for extrinsic rewards, train seriously or aim to win at all costs
  119. Amateur athletics club
    • Established in 1866
    • Set up by ex university gentlemen amateurs, who want to compete against one another without having to mix with professionals
    • Wanted to dissociate respectable modern athletics from the old corrupted professional form 
    • Adopted the exclusion clause already adopted by the amateur rowing association (ARA) which prevented manual workers from joining sporting associations
  120. Amateur Athletics Association AAA
    • Established in 1880
    • Responsible for opening up the sport to all levels of society without compromising its respectable image
    • Exclusion clause was withdrawn & a professional became someone who ran for money rather than someone from the lower class
  121. Different aspect of late nineteenth century athletics
    • Upper & middle class:
    • Sports days-public school
    • Elite athletics clubs-for gentlemen amateurs
    • urban athletic sports-Respectable alternatives to the old fairs, wakes & festivals
    • Lower & Working class:
    • Pedestrianism-Commercial attraction
    • Sports days-Organised by local promoters in Northern Industrial towns
    • Cross country or harrier clubs-Associated with the urban working class
  122. Participation in Athletics today
    • Jogging or running, cheap simple & accessible activity, participation levels are high. It is a popular fashionable health enhancing pastime despite risks of injury from overuse.
    • In much more specialised track & field athletics participation rates are much lower
    • successful events such as London Marathon, Great North Run, Race for life & hash house harriers
    • Increased popularity of triathlon events
  123. Factors that have helped develop athletics & the impact of these factors on participation & performance
    • Technological developments e.g. tracks, clothing, titanium for javelins etc.
    • Sports hall athletics: indoor athletics for young people, Adapted events used scaled down versions of mainstream athletics & modified equipment. Aim is for young people to enjoy & develop their athletic capabilities & possibly continue into life long participation.
    • Playground athletics. Similar to above with a teacher pack for schools showing them how athletic can be done safely without specialist equipment
    • Adequate media coverage to promote role models & make a difference 
    • Competition organisers & development officers who work for county councils & who in some areas run the sports hall athletics programme
    • Passion of individual teachers & club members
    • In September 2008 Sally Gunnell launched McCain 'track & field' a nationwide campaign aiming to make athletics more accessible 
    • Sponsorship, such as from McCain who in JUly 2008 announced a five year £5 million sponsorship deal with UK athletics
    • Lottery funding & prize money has meant that the elite can now be career athletes.
  124. Specific factors that might be a barrier to participation in athletics today
    • Many events specialised & lined with risk so there is a need for specialist coaches & strict time consuming health & safety procedures. 
    • Many young people get poached by team sports which are arguably more sociable with less individual exposure 
    • Teachers lack of confidence or fear of legal action
    • Challenges for schools include restricted time in summer term, impact of poor weather expense of equipment, difficulty of getting equipment out, lack of throwing cases to reduce risk & increase safety
    • Lack of access to top level clubs where access is determined by trials, such clubs are inaccessible to most young people who will not have seen the specialist equipment until year 7 at earliest 
    • Athletics not generally considered to be a lifetime sport
    • Negative image due to drug scandals may deter young people or their parents 
    • Negative image of some field events as not 'cool' or appealing compared to other events
    • Indoor facilities very selective & mainly restricted to use by high- performance athletes
  125. Football as a popular recreation - mob games
    • variety of games involving kicking & throwing a ball were regular features of English pre0industrialised society 
    • Sometimes bizarre, always lively & often tragic
    • As a rowdy, violent, locally-coded, Occasional encounter between neighbouring villages mob football is the best example of a popular recreation
    • Early mob football games were played in restricted city streets as well as the countryside. They were little more than massive brawls involving brute force between hordes of young men. They caused uproar, damage to property & a perfect setting for anyone attracted to violence
    • Shrove tuesday became a traditional day for mob games & an opportunity for fun & excitement before the seriousness of lent
    • Some of best known games of mob football were in Ashbourne & Derby. Many such games survive today
    • Throughout history Kings, Government & local authorities have frowned upon mob games because they caused- damage to property, injury to young men, disrespect for the Sabbath & social unrest
    • Although successive authorities declared the games illegal without an effect policing systems laws were fairly easy to ignore.
    • Mob games can be recognised by their lack of- Set rules, position, pitch or boundaries, referee or umpire, skilfulness, regularity
  126. The extent to which mob games had characteristic of popular recreation
    • Local-yes to great extent
    • Simple unwritten rules- Yes due to widespread illiteracy
    • Cruel & violent-yes very violent many injuries & some deaths
    • Occasional/annual-usually annual festival occasions
    • Courtly/popular- Yes predominantly lower class & male
    • Rural- yes mainly although there were some town games such as Kingston upon Thames
    • Occupational-No
    • Wagering- Yes high levels of wagering on outcome
    • Simple/natural-Yes no purpose built facilities so played across fields & between villages or through streets
  127. Influence of the public schools on football
    • From the earliest days of public school history impromptu, natural forms of football were played. Boys brought games from their local area which developed into school games dependent on the natural facilities available
    • The first melting pot occurred when boys brought their local games  from home during stage 1
    • In stage 2 of public schools with rebellion almost over & fighting on the wane football became the place to settle disputes & to show courage and determination.
    • Football helped the social class that had originally tried to kill it off                                 and for the first time in English history it became respectable
    • By the 1860's transport & communications had greatly improved
    • School football had also developed & a variety of internal & external contests were organised.
    • second melting pot involved the mixing of different schools games at Uni.
    • At first most schools were unwilling to give up their own code or to amalgamate with others
    • Disagreement often occurred in inter-school matches as each school had different rules
  128. Values associated with football & rugby in public schools in the nineteenth century
    • Teamwork-everyone needed to work together supporting each other for the good of the team
    • Leadership-Opportunities available for house & school captains
    • Loyalty- to team to house & to school
    • Courage & manliness- qualities need to be shown in the face of strong opposition. Boys need to be able to cope with difficult conditions & to show nerve & bravery when injured or losing
    • Endeavour, determination & commitment-Players trained & played hard.A boy should never give up no matter what the score or difficult conditions these qualities were shown when coming back from injury, working to get into a team turning up for training
    • Discipline- Need to keep cool under pressure & always obey not only the rules of the referee but the unwritten rules of sportsmanship & fair play
    • Honesty, integrity, sportsmanship & fairplay- Playing to the letter & the spirit of the rules was an essential aspect of playing as an amateur or public school boy. Gentlemanly behaviour was part of the game which involved  showing respect of team mates & opponents. Being gracious in victory & defeat was the hallmark of a gentlemen.
    • Trust/acceptance- Needed to be shown in team mates, in decisions of the captain & in selection
  129. Football as a rational recreation
    • FA founded in 1863 game became popular very quickly especially in Northern industrial towns because:
    • It was simple, affordable & fitted perfectly into the newly free Saturday afternoon
    • It provided a focus for community solidarity & comradeship.
    • Improved transport & communication made travel to away matches & the following of local teams in the press possible
    • For professionals it offered an improved lifestyle & regular wages
    • Made hero's among the working class
  130. Amateurism & professionalism in football
    • Soon became clear best players couldn't take unpaid time off work to play
    • When football league was founded in 1888 the FA reluctantly accepted professionalism. First international match between England & scotland took place in 1870 and by 1885 all the home countries were playing each other
    • Quite quickly working class dominance of football changed the game
    • Ex-public school boys set up amateur only leagues, a amateur cur & amateur international fixtures
  131. Broken time payment & the split between the two codes in football
    • Broken time payment were made to working class players to compensate for loss of earnings. Players could not afford to take unpaid time off work or be unfit for work due to injury
    • Led to professionalism which was looked down upon by gentlemen amateurs
    • In Rugby football there was an increasing need to professional players, particularly in the North of England
    • The game split & the Northern Football union (having failed to win broken time payments for players)  was formed in 1895
    • With the spread of football across Europe & the Empire the international football federation (FIFA) was formed in 1904 & by 1906 professional football had become the major form of entertainment for males in Britain
  132. Participation in football today
    • Traditionally the national game with history of high participation
    • Community participation (lads & dads)
    • Boom sport for women & girls 
    • Simple, cheap & accessible game that can modified & played anywhere
    • Played in majority of schools, curricular, extra curricular & in the playground
    • Women's World Cup
  133. Factors that have helped develop football & the impact of these factors on participation & performance
    • Spectator game has developed as family entertainment with family enclosures & payment initiatives as well as safer, larger stadia; increase Spectatorism & arguably could impact on participation
    • Elite performers as 'rags to riches' icons
    • Technology & fashionable clothing; kits, boots, balls, turf, stadia (Wembley)
    • Impact of sporting celebrities (David Beckham)
    • Academies often provide community football camps
    • International game with tournaments such as African Nations cup which includes English & Scottish premier league which thereby attracts interest in the UK
    • The FA's respect campaign to combat unacceptable behaviour at every level both on the pitch & from the sidelines.
  134. Specific factors that might be a barrier to participation in football today
    • Less street football due to more cars and parental concerns regarding safety
    • Smaller garden less suitable for playing games
    • Reputation of poor behaviour by the minority 
    • Selling off of school & municipal playing fields, for example for more profitable housing or supermarkets
    • Argument of decreasing parental involvement due to work commitments
  135. Cricket as a popular recreation
    • Village cricket was played from the early eighteenth century especially in Kent Sussex & Hampshire
    • From the start the social classes played together reflecting the feudal or class structure of the village
    • Gentry patrons employed estate workers as gardeners & gamekeepers primarily for their cricketing talents
    • Players could not afford to take unpaid time from work or be unfit for work due to injury.
    • Some freelance professionals who played in a servant role to their current employer. Early clubs emerged from these rural village sides.
  136. Arguments for and against cricket being a popular recreation
    • Cricket was a popular recreation because:
    • It attracted widespread wagering
    • It was played by both males & females
    • Predominantly rural 
    • Often associated with feasts & festival days 
    • Rules could be locally adapted 
    • However:
    • It was predominantly non violent
    • It had an early rule structure
    • It had national touring sides from the 1840's
  137. Cricket in public schools
    • Already a popular rural game by the mid 1700's soon adopted by public schools
    • Headmasters happy to accept the game as its standardised rules, lack of violence & involvement by the Gentry made it respectable
    • Occupied the boys & kept them out of trouble
    • Changes that occurred during the 3 stages of development reflected changes in the game at large. During the 1850-60's cricket grew with William Clarke's All England XI touring the country to entertain & inspire; the lords festival week being established as a social display of wealth for the Eton, Harrow & Winchester nobility & the first England team visiting Australia in 1861
    • As a reflection of these developments cricket in public schools was now highly organised & associated with- Regularity as an inter-house & inter-school game, compulsory participation, Investment in equipment & groundwork, the employment of professional coaches, more time spent in training, appointment of assistant teachers for their cricketing prowess, hosting of matches as grand social occasions, the belief that cricket installed a range of character building qualities such as leadership & teamwork.
  138. Values & status of cricket in public schools
    • values thought to have been gained through participation in inter house & inter school cricket after 1870 are as follows:
    • Physical endeavour courage & commitment
    • Physical prowess
    • Moral integrity & linked qualities such as honesty, fair play & self discipline
    • Teamwork, loyalty, leadership & loyal response to leadership
    • Decision making, problem solving & organisational skills
    • Healthy lifestyles & relief from academic work
    • Character building values of athleticism so easily linked to football & rugby were also easily achieved through cricket.
  139. Cricket as a rational recreation-William Clarke XI
    • William Clarke took advantage of the changing economic & social conditions of the 1840's & helped change cricket from a fragmented localised sport to a national success
    • By the 1840's upper class patronage of cricket had declined & professionals looked elsewhere for employment. 
    • Some went to the public schools & universities whilst others joined professional touring sides such as the William Clarke XI or the Breakaway United XI
    • These sides toured England for many seasons attracting huge crowds & took on teams of up to 22 opponents.
  140. Class division in Cricket
    • In the 1870's county cricket took over from the touring elevens as a spectator attraction. This rationalised form of the game had a strict class divide While the middle class amateurs needed & respected professionals they kept them firmly in their social place:
    • They had different names-Professional vs Amateur
    • Their names appeared differently in the programmes
    • They had different eating arrangements
    • They did not travel together or share a changing room
    • They entered the field of play from a different door
    • The captain & the opening batsman was always a amateur
    • The university men (Amateurs) looked after 'the lads' (Professionals) While the lads arguably respected the gentlemen for their leadership qualities & skills as thinkers & motivators. It was not until 1963 that the distinction between gentlemen & players was finally abolished in English cricket
  141. Participation in cricket today
    • In it's simplest form, a popular beach game 
    • English cricket board (ECB) statistics show a 27% increase in participation rates in the 12 months up to October 2008 and a 45% increase in female participation over the same period
    • 8,000 cricket clubs in England of which 6,500 are affiliated to ECB & 3,700 have junior sections
    • Summer game in state schools but many constraints such as need for time, adequate facilities & specialist coaching
    • Independent schools often able to provide more cricket opportunities than state schools
  142. Factors that have helped develop cricket & the impact of these factors on participation & performance
    • A sophisticated & structured development programme by ECB with development targeted through clubs rather than through schools; programmes are designed & devised locally with regional support from ECB
    • Strategies & initiatives include adapted games for peoples with disabilities 
    • The 'club mark' scheme whereby clubs gain a kite mark standard & accreditation as healthy safe places for young people 
    • 'Chance to shine'
    • Technology for bats, bowling machines, protective clothing & so on 
    • Twenty20, one day matches
    • Media hype linked with test matches 
    • Commercialisation of the game at top level- top teams visiting different towns to entertain & inspire 
    • Asian immigration since 1960's
    • The England women's victory in the cricket World Cup in 2009
  143. Specific factors that might be  barrier to participation in cricket today
    • Summer game- limited time available at school level
    • Kolpak ruling means that less money might be spent on coaching & developing young, home-grown players
  144. Tennis as a popular recreation-Real tennis
    • Real or royal tennis originated in France and became popular in britian in the fourteenth century 
    • Its an exclusive, elitist game for kings, nobles & merchants who played on purpose built, highly sophisticated courts which varied in size & shape 
    • Game had complex rules & required high levels of skill
    • Henry VIII built the court at Hampton Court palace which is still used today 
    • Most university colleges had a court
  145. The extent to which real tennis had characteristics of popular recreation
    • Local- The people who played had the money time & transport to allow them to travel
    • Simple unwritten rules-No complex written rules
    • Cruel/violent-No refined & sophisticated
    • Occasional/annual-No those who played had time 
    • Courtly/Popular-Yes upper male, though the lower-class peasant would've copied & played hand & ball games against any suitable wall
    • Rural-Mixed, Henry XIII had Hampton court
    • Occupational-No
    • Wagering- Yes high levels of wagering on outcome
    • simple/Natural-No, Expensive purpose built courts of various shapes & sizes
  146. Fives
    • Fives is ancient & informal in origin 
    • Best known structure version is Eton Fives
    • Hugely popular in public schools but failed to become a national game of any repute because:
    • It had a tradition of being played as a recreational game in free time
    • There were different versions of the game
    • It had limited scope for developing the character
    • More sophisticated game of racquets already established
  147. Racquets
    • At first racquets played informally by school boys on naturally occurring courts
    • By 1850 two standardised courts were built at Harrow costing £850
    • By the time old boys took the game to university & to their private clubs it had attained a high social status far beyonds its beginnings in a debtors prison
    • as the game Became more sophisticated the court was rationalised with four walls and a roof to guard against bad weather
  148. Squash
    • Many argue that racquets lead to the invention of the more compact less expensive game of squash rackets when boys at Harrow were waiting to play rackets began knocking up outside using a less hard more squashy ball than for racquets to avoid damage to the windows
    • By 1860's purpose built squash courts were common & boys took the game into University & often back to their country homes
  149. Lawn Tennis in public schools
    • Lawn tennis was a social game that became a vehicle for the emancipation of women 
    • Boys' public schools rejected lawn tennis as anything other than an informal social summer game because:
    • Lawn tennis courts took up too much space for the number of boys occupied
    • The game did not require the courage or physicality of football or cricket
    • It could not rival the contemporary status of cricket or football
    • Id did not require the teamwork or cooperation of major games
    • It had a reputation of being 'pat ball' and suitable only for girls
    • As a new invention it was treated with some suspicion
  150. Tennis as a rational recreation
    • Game of lawn tennis was invented, patented & populated by the middle class ary major Walter Clompton Wingfield in 1874
    • Wingfield sold the game in a painted box containing pole pegs & netting for forming the court, four tennis bats, a supply of balls, a mallet & brush & a book of the game
    • Originally called Sphairistrike the game was played on an hourglass shape court but within a few years the name was changed to lawn tennis & the court was modified to become rectangular
    • Lawn tennis was brought by the most fashionable upper/middle-class families
    • In 1877 the All England Croquet club introduced lawn tennis at wimbledon. 22 competitors took part & the finals attracted 200 spectators
    • By 1885 3,500 spectators would watch the men's final
  151. The development of Lawn tennis
    • Middle classes excluded from real tennis so invented their own alternative
    • Game was perfect for upper/middle class suburban gardens
    • Important social occasion
    • It was patented & became a fashionable status symbol
    • Tennis clubs were formed which allowed social gatherings of the same class of people
    • Lower/middle class who's gardens were too small also frequented these private clubs
    • Working class were excluded they had to wait for public provision in parks, delayed their participation 
    • Development of tennis reflected the emergence of the urban middle class
  152. Lawn tennis-A vehicle for the emancipation/liberation of women
    • Game helped dispel some negative stereotypes of women from earlier Victorian times
    • As a social occasion it was part of family recreation
    • Women could participate in a (mildly) strenuous game for the first time but (crucially) didn't have to over exert themselves & were expected to excel 
    • They could stay covered up & retain modesty as participation did not require special dress
    • True social importance of tennis was that it could be played by either sex or both together
    • Privacy of the garden with high hedges or walls provided an opportunity to invite suitable members of the opposite sec for supervised sports
  153. participation in tennis today
    • Focused on clubs with school links important
    • In spite of initiatives could be argues that tennis is still predominantly a middle class game
  154. Factors that have helped develop tennis & the impact of these factors on participation & performance
    • technology such as astroturf, titanium rackets, low compression balls, ball machines and other coaching aids
    • LTA & other scheme to increase participation in inner cities
    • Increasing number of indoor courts; more able to play throughout the year as well as provision in public parks
    • Regionalisation of LTA
    • Media coverage; widespread exposure of role models 
    • Retractable roof on centre court at wimbledon 2009
    • Free or heavily subsided use of community courts in parks in some areas
  155. Specific factors that might be a barrier to participation in Tennis today
    • Public perception that tennis is a game for wealthy people 
    • Quality of park/public provision-many community courts are neglected & in disrepair & others have been turned into skateboard parks or playgrounds
    • Summer game limited time available at school level
    • unpredictable British Weather
    • Other challenges at school level, such a s specialist coaches needed & expensive space wise 
    • Courts converted to car parks at many schools/colleges
    • A comparatively difficult game
    • Computer alternatives to the real thing such a wii sport
    • prevailing 'stuffy' attitudes at some private clubs
  156. why was the model course of 1902 quickly replaced?
    • It had been imposed by the war office
    • Military drill with its command style was soon considered unsuitable for young children 
    • Educationalists demanded a healthier approach linked to good posture & therapeutic exercises with children being allowed to play rather than being treated as little soldiers 
    • Dr George Newman was appointed Chief Medical officer within the board of education. Newman stressed the health giving/therapeutic effects of exercise & the importance of recreational activities for the rehabilitation of injured soldiers
    • Teachers objected to Army non-commissioned officers (NCO's) in schools & wanted PT to be their responsibilty
  157. Why was the 1933 syllabus replaced in the 1950s
    • A more holistic approach to the physical education of young children was sought that incorporated the intellectual, emotional & social development of each individual child
    • Desire for less prescriptive 'tables' of exercises & more creativity
    • By the 1950s there were: more female teachers who wanted a different movement style approach to physical activity & many new purpose built gymnasia for gymnastic activity
  158. important points of the 1902 model course
    • Military needs became more powerful than educational theory
    • A backward step educational with Swedish drill, innovation & a therapeutic approach abandoned
    • Condemned by progressives & supporters of the Swedish system
    • Girls & Boys instructed together
    • Failed to cater for different ages and/or genders
    • Children treated as soldiers
    • Taught by army NCO's
    • Dull & repetitive but cheap
    • Large number in small spaces
    • Set against back drop of poor diets, bad housing & other forms of social deprivation
    • Lowered the status of the subject
  159. Influences of the 1902 model course
    • Imposed as a result of Britain's poor performance in the Boer War
    • Produced & imposed by Colonel Malcolm Fox of the war office
  160. Objectives of the 1902 model course
    • Fitness for military service/war
    • Training in the handling of weapons 
    • Discipline for the working class
  161. Content of the 1902 model course
    • Military drill/marching
    • static exercises e.g. arm raises 
    • weapon training 
    • Deep breathing
  162. Methodology of the 1902 model course
    • Command response
    • Group response/no individuality
    • In ranks
  163. Important points of the 1933 syllabus of physical training
    • Industrial depression of the 1930s left many of the working class unemployed 
    • Watershed between the syllabuses of the past & the physical education of the future
    • Syllabus had one section for the under 11's and one for the over 11's
    • Detailed high quality & highly respected syllabus
    • Still set out in a series of 'tables' from which teachers planned their lessons
    • Newman stated that good nourishment, effective medical inspection & treatment & hygienic surroundings were all necessary for good health.
  164. Influences of the 1933 syllabus of physical training
    • Hadow report of 1926 identified the need to differentiate between ages for physical training 
    • Dr George Newman-last syllabus to be ublished under his direction
  165. Objectives of the 1933 syllabus of physical trainig
    • Physical fitness
    • Therapeutic benefits
    • Good physique
    • Good posture
    • Development of mind & body (holistic aims)
  166. Content of the 1933 syllabus of physical training
    • Athletics, gymnastics & games skills
    • Group work
  167. Methodology of the 1933 syllabus of physical training
    • Still direct style for the majority of the lesson/centralised 
    • Some decentralised parts of the lesson
    • Group work/tasks throughout
    • Encouragement of special clothing/kit
    • 5 20 minute lessons a week recommended
    • Used many schools newly built gymnasia
    • Outdoor lessons recommended for health benefits
    • Some specialist pe teachers
  168. Important points of moving & growing 1952 & planning the programme 1954
    • Education act 1944 aimed to ensure equality of educational opportunity
    • Also required local authorities to provide playing fields for all schools
    • School leaving age raised to 15
    • These syllabuses should be viewed in the context of overall expansion of physical activities in schools
    • Intended to replace the under 11's section of the 1933 syllabus
    • Extensive post war rebuilding programme lead to an expansion of facilities
  169. Objective of moving & growing 1952 & planning the programme 1954
    • Physical social & cognitive development
    • Variety of experiences
    • Enjoyment
    • Personal satisfaction/sense of achievement
    • Increased involvement for all
  170. Content of the moving & growing 1952 & the planning the programme 1954
    • Agility exercises; gymnastics, dance & games skills
    • Theme or sequence work
    • Movement to music
    • Apparatus work
  171. Methodology of the moving & growing 1952 & planning the programme 1954
    • Child-centred & enjoyment orientated
    • progressive
    • more specialised PE teachers
    • Teacher guidance rather than direction
    • Problem solving/creative/exploratory/discovery
    • Individual interpretation of tasks/decentralised
    • Using full apparatus (cave, ropes, bars, boxes)
  172. Influences of the moving & growing 1952 & planning the programme 1954
    • Second World War which required thinking soldiers and the subsequent perceived need for increasingly thinking children
    • Assault course obstacle equipment influenced apparatus design
    • Modern education dance methods influenced the creative/movement approach
    • An experiment in Halifax which rehabilitated children with disabilities by encouraged individual interpretation of open tasks with no pre set rhythm or timing, Influenced the problem solving approach
  173. impact of industrial action by teachers in state schools (1970 & 1980)
    • reduced opportunity & provision 
    • Extra-curricular activities severely restricted or stopped
    • Participation reduced in schools
    • Participation shifted to community clubs
    • Frustration/disappointment for both children & teachers
    • Negative press for teachers
  174. national curriculum of physical education
    • one of 5 subjects which all pupils must pursue from 5-16
    • At each key stage children need to show knowledge, skills & understanding in a variety of practical areas
  175. Potential positive impacts of the national curriculum
    • Higher standards
    • Clear national standards
    • Broad & balanced P.E experience for all
    • Consistent opportunity & content for all wherever they go to school
    • easy transfer between schools
    • learners gain the right to learn certain things
    • Increased likelihood of lifelong participation due to greater variety of activities experienced
    • As a relatively open framework it can be adapted to the needs of learners
    • Provides some support especially to non specialists teachers of p.e
    • Develops learning thinking & analytical skills as well as creativity innovation & enterprise
    • Develops social skills such as fair play
    • helps pupils to manage risk & cope with difficulty
    • Cn develop pupils integrity & independence
  176. Potential negative impacts of the national curriculum
    • Tracking & record keeping can involve large amounts of paperwork for teachers
    • lack of assessment experience by some primary teachers can lead to confusion & skewed results at lower KS3
    • Ma reduce creativity of certain teachers who feel constrained though this may have been addressed with new KS3 curriculum
    • Can impose pressure on schools with facilities such as tennis courts
    • Schools still able to offer an unbalanced programmee.g. football & not rugby or avoidance of dance and/or gymnastics by teachers who prefer games
    • demanding on teachers who may lack support
  177. personality
    Athletes display their own unique patterns of behaviour while engaged in sports Performance and some psychologists believe that quality of performance & participation in sport are determined by personality
  178. Trait perspective
    • trait view states all behaviour is innate & genetically programmed
    • Traits are thought to be stable, enduring & consistent in all situations 
    • Trait theory: 
    • Behaviour = function of personality. B=F(P)
    • Drawbacks:
    • states that behaviour is at all times predictable
    • it does not take into account the fact that people adapt their behaviour in response to a particular environmental situation
    • Does not consider environmental influences on the shaping of personality
    • Two specific theories that belong to the trait perspective of personality: 
    • Personality types (Eysenck & Cattell)
    • Narrow band theory Type A & Type B (Girdano)
  179. Personality types
    • Eysenck identified 4 primary personality traits or types:
    • Extrovert
    • Introvert
    • Stable
    • Neurotic (unstable)
  180. Extrovert
    • Affiliates well to other people
    • Outgoing, gregarious & sociable
    • Becomes aroused more slowly than introverts
    • Has low sensitivity of the reticular activating system
  181. Introvert
    • Tends to be shy & reserved
    • Prefers isolation from others
    • Becomes aroused more quickly than extroverts
    • Has high sensitivity to reticular activating system (RAS)
  182. Stable
    • Displays predictable emotions in appropriate situations 
    • Moods are predictable
    • Tend not to experience intense stress
    • Recovery from stress is rapid
  183. Neurotic (Unstable)
    • Displays extreme & unpredictable emotions in the form of mood swings
    • Moods are unreliable
    • experience high degrees of stress
    • Recovery from stress is slow
  184. Narrow band theory
    • Girdano proposed two distinct personality types; type A & type b.
    • Type A:
    • Highly competitive
    • works fast
    • Strong desire to succeed
    • likes control
    • prone to suffer stress
    • Type B:
    • Non competitive 
    • works slower
    • Lacking in desire to succeed
    • Does not enjoy control 
    • Less prone to stress
  185. Social learning perspective (Bandura)
    • Social learning perspective proposes all behaviour is learned; personality is not genetically programmed
    • Two processes involved in social learning theory: 
    • Behaviour of others is imitated through observation 
    • New behaviour is acquired after observation only when endorsed through social reinforcement
    • Social learning theory:
    • Behaviour=function of environment. B=F(E)
  186. Conditions that support social learning
    • Role model is powerful & authoritative 
    • Observer & role model are the same gender
    • When observer wants to adopt the norms & values of a new culture i.e. after joining a new team
    • When observed behaviour is demonstrated by a significant other or role model of higher status
  187. interactionist approach
    • Based on work of Hollander 1967
    • Interactionist view combines the trait & social learning perspectives
    • Personality is modified & behaviour is formed when genetically inherited traits are triggered by an environmental circumstance
    • Hollander proposed that personality has 3 levels that interact to form personality:
    • Psychological core: Most internal of the personality levels. Thought to be the true self
    • Typical responses: Changeable & learned behaviours. Become modified as person responds to the environment
    • Role-related behaviour: Most external of personality levels. Dynamic & most changeable.
    • Interaction theory:
    • Behaviour= Function of personality x Environment. B=F(PxE)
    • Supports the claim typical responses emerge in accordance with changing environmental situations
    • Behaviour unpredictable
    • Approach offers explanation why the personalities of sports performers can change in different situations
  188. Personality profiling
    • A system which classifies an individual into a particular personality type
    • While inclination to participate in sport can not be predicted by personality profiling it may be the identification of traits can be used by a psychologist to recommend participation in sport or physical activity
    • Type A patterns of behaviour that may be linked to stress can be altered through exercise
    • Exercise & increased levels of fitness appear to increases self-esteem of those individuals who register initially as having low self esteem
    • Although personality profiling may help a coach to get to know people & provide the motivation for the individual to change behaviour & lifestyle it must be understood that sport & exercise can not fundamentally change overall personality.
  189. Limitations of personality profiling in sport
    • proof: A link between personality types & sport performance can not be proved. One psychologist believes that the relationship between sport participation & personality are doubtful 
    • Evidence: No evidence an ideal sports personality exists
    • Subjectivity: Profiling results often subjective; conclusions may be influenced by personal opinions and are not totally supported by scientific evidence
    • Invalidity: Profiling results often inaccurate & invalid . Invalid don't measure that which they intend to
    • Modification: Performer may unconsciously modify their behaviour to match up to the profile ascribed to them.
    • Reliability: Many profiles calculated by using self report questionnaire studies. Results of studies not always reliable as may not answer all questions accurately
    • Stereotyping: Danger profiling will stereotype a performer.
  190. Attitudes & their influence on performance & lifestyle
    • Attitude is mode of behaviour thought to be typical response of an individual
    • Attitudes emotional responses that can be enduring but unstable
    • Unstable means attitudes can be changed
    • Attitude is directed towards an 'attitude object'
    • Negative attitude towards sport may result in rejection of physical activity by an individual
    • Long-standing attitudes may adversely influence behaviour causing an individual to be inconsistent in judgement 
    • Inconsistencies in behaviour may be revealed in the form of prejudice
    • Prejudice is a pre-judgement arising from an evaluation based on unfounded beliefs or opinions
    • Coach could have a prejudice against an individual performer.
    • Negative prejudice relates to: gender, race, age
  191. origin of attitudes
    • attitudes can originate from a number of sources:
    • Experience
    • Socialisation
    • Peer group
    • The media
    • Culture
    • When an outcome is positively reinforced worthwhile experiences can encourage favourable attitudes towards physical activity thus promoting the pursuit of an active healthy  balanced lifestyle
  192. Triadic model of attitide
    • Cognitive component: reflects beliefs & knowledge that an individual holds about the attitude object-also known as information component
    • Affective component: Consists of feelings or an emotional response towards an attitude object- known as emotional component here that an evaluation of an attitude object is made 
    • Behavioural component: Concerns how a person intends to behave or respond towards an attitude object.
  193. Changing attitudes: Cognitive dissonance theory
    • By changing one attitude component a person will experience emotional conflict or dissonance
    • Emotional conflict is the basis of dissonance theory
    • Dissonance may cause a negative attitude to be changed
  194. Attitudes
    • attitudes in general are poor predictors of behaviour 7 may not necessarily indicate the likelihood of a desirable lifestyle choice
    • An individuals positive attitudes & belief relating to the health benefits of exercise do not guarantee that they will commit to an exercise programme
    • When attitudes become more specific they are more likely to predict behaviour
    • The most accurate predictor of behaviour is when a person makes a clear statement or commitment. This predictor is called behavioural intention
  195. Achievement motivation
    • Achievement motivation links personality with the degree of competitiveness shown by an individual 
    • Atkinson & McClelland 1976 predicted that achievement motivation is generated through a combination of personality & situational factors, They view achievement motivation as a personality trait which is activated by a situation. Situation comprises the probability of success & the incentive value of success 
    • Probability of success: The extent to which success is likely 
    • Incentive value of success: Intrinsic value experienced by the individual after success has been achieved 
    • best at predicting behavioural responses in situations where there is a 50-50 chance of success or failure
    • A situation in which the chance of success or failure is even is likely to trigger the motivation to achieve in performers with high achievement traits 
    • High achievers in these circumstances are likely to display approach behaviour & mastery orientation characteristics
    • Incentive value will be high when chance of success is evenly balanced 
    • Performers showing personality traits that are associated with low achievement motivation would experience great anxiety in situations with a 50-50 chance of success
    • In this situation low achievers are most likely to adopt avoidance behaviour & experience learned helplessness.
  196. Mastery orientation
    Strong motive to succeed found in the high achiever. Type of person will expect to succeed but will persist when failure is experienced.
  197. Learned Helplessness
    Belief that failure is inevitable & that the individual has no control over the factors that cause failure
  198. High nach personality characteristics
    • High need to achieve 
    • Low need to avoid failure
    • Approach behaviour adopted
    • Challenge is accepted
    • Risks are undertaken
    • Shows persistence & perseverance when task is difficult 
    • Success tend to be attributed to internal factors
    • Failure tends to be attributed to external factors
    • Failure seen as route to success
    • Aspire to mastery orientation
  199. Low nach personality characteristics
    • Low need to achieve
    • High need to avoid failure
    • Avoidance behaviour adopted 
    • Challenge is rejected 
    • Risks are declined
    • Curtails effort when task is difficult
    • Success tends to be attributed to external factors
    • Failure tends to be attributed to internal factors
    • Failure seen to route to further failure
    • Adopt learned helplessness
  200. Attribution theory
    • Looks at reasons given by coaches & players for success & failure in sport
    • Study of attribution has been shown by Weiner to have powerful implications for achievement related behaviour
    • Strong links between attributions & achievement motivation 
    • Weiners model constructed on 2 dimensions
    • Locus of casualty dimension indicates whether the attribution relates to factors that are either internal or external to the performer. 
    • Stability indicates whether attribution are stable or unstable. Stability refers to the degree of performance associated with an attribution factor.
  201. Reasons for success & failure
    • In general coach should attribute failure to external causes in order to sustain confidence. Internal attributions should be used to reinforce success
    • High achievers:
    • high achievers or people who adopt the approach behaviour tend to attribute their success to internal factors e.g. high ability level
    • Failure is put down to external factors e.g. bad luck
    • failure seen as temporary setback.
    • Known as self-serving bias
    • As a consequence high achievers tend to remain  persistent in the face of failure
    • Positive application of attribution 
    • Consistent achievement & positive application of attribution would promote mastery orientation. Likely to encourage a physically active lifestyle
    • Low achievers: 
    • Low achievers or people who adopt an avoidance  behaviour tend to attribute a lack of success to internal factors e.g. lack of ability
    • also tend to attribute success to external factors e.g. luck
    • Type of attribution would take away confidence & reduce expectation of future achievement
    • Negative application of attribution
    • Repeated failure & negative application of attribution would cause the athlete to experience learned helplessness.
    • Condition may cause an individual to avoid an activity
  202. Attribution retraining
    • involves changing the performers perception of the causes of failure. It focuses the reasons for failure onto internal, unstable & controllable factors e.g. effort attributions
    • Process of attribution retraining: 
    • Raises confidence
    • Changes avoidance behaviour into approach behaviour
    • encourages mastery orientation 
    • Promote likelihood of lifelong sport participation
  203. Aggression
    • Prime motive of hostile aggression is to harm an opponent 
    • Aggressive actions violate the rules of any game & such indiscretions are dysfunctional in the context of sport
    • Often an aggressive player will disrupt the teams performance & spoil the cohesion of the group.
    • Aggression needs to be eliminated in sport
  204. Assertion
    • Also known as channelled aggression
    • Assertive behaviour does not attempt to harm & is strictly within the rules & spirit of the game
    • Assertion often involves forceful play, primarily focused upon completing the skill successfully 
    • Major aim of assertion is the successful completion of the task
    • Assertion was described by Parens as non hostile self protective mastery behaviour

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