NUTR 225 Ch. 5

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  1. Lipids, Three types?
    Diverse class of molecules that are insoluble in water

    • 1)Triglycerides
    • 2) Phospholipids
    • 3) Sterols
  2. Triglycerides
    Three fatty acid molecules, one glycerol molecule.
  3. Fatty acids
    • - long chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms
    • - Lengths: short (<6), medium (6-12), long (>13)
    • - Level of saturation: amount of hydrogen surrounding the carbon
  4. Glycerol
    a three-carbon alcohol that is the backbone of a triglyceride
  5. Saturated, Monounsaturated, and Polyunsaturated fatty acids
    • 1) Saturated: hydrogen atoms surrounding every carbon; no double bond
    • 2) Monounsaturated: lack hydrogen atoms in one region; have one double bond
    • 3) Polyunsaturated: lack hydrogen atoms in multiple locations; have 2+ double bonds
  6. Triglycerides: long chains and bent chains
    • - Long-chain: stack well together to a solid form at room temperature.
    • - Bent-chain: do not stack well, and therefore are liquids at room temperature.
  7. Hydrogenation
    • The addition of hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids.
    • - converts liquid fats into semisolid; margarine from plant oil
    • - often creates trans fatty acids
  8. Essential fatty acids
    1) Linoleic: omega-6 fatty acid; vegetables and nut oils; blood clotting and blood pressure

    2) Alpha-linolenic acid: omega-3 fatty acid; vegetables, fish, fish oils; inflammation, blood clotting, blood pressure
  9. Phospholipids
    • - Glycerol backbone, two fatty acids, phosphate
    • - soluble in water
    • - Made in our bodies
    • - Important components of cell membrane
  10. Sterols
    • Lipids containing multiple rings of carbon atoms
    • - essential components of cell membranes
    • - Made in our bodies
    • - Cholesterol is major sterol in body
  11. Fat is essential to many body functions, such as...
    • - Cell membrane structure
    • - Nerve cell transmissions
    • - Protection of internal organs
    • - Insulation to retain body heat
  12. Role of Fats
    • - Provides flavor and texture to foods
    • - Make us feel satiated
    • - Not digested and absorbed easily because it's insoluble
  13. Digestion of Fats
    • - Mouth-> Lingual lipase digests some triglycerides
    • - Stomach-> Mixed, broken into droplets
    • - Gallbadder-> Contracts due to secretion of CCK and secretin from the duodenal mucosal cells; releases bile into small intestine
    • - Small intestine-> Lipid-digesting enzymes from pancreas convert triglycerides into monoglycerides; also convert dietary cholesterol and phospholipids into their components; Micelles transport lipid digestion products to the enterocytes of the small intestine for absorption
    • - Intestinal mucosal cell-> fatty acids reattached to monoglycerides to re-form triglycerides; protein added to form chylomicron
  14. Chylomicron
    a lipoprotein produced by cells lining the small intestines
  15. How much fat should we eat?
    • According to AMDR, 20-35% of calories
    • Athletes/highly active people can reduce to 20-25% of calories
    • - Saturated fat: 7%
    • - Trans fatty acids: absolute minimum
  16. Visible fats and Hidden fats
    Visible: those we can see in foods (dressing, chicken skin)

    Hidden: added to processed or prepared foods to improve texture or taste
  17. Cardiovascular disease
    • - Dysfunction of the heart or blood vessels
    • - Can result in heart attack or stroke
  18. Three most common forms of CVD
    • 1) Coronary heart disease
    • 2) Stroke
    • 3) Hypertension
  19. Atherosclerosis
    • - Artery walls build up lipid deposits and scar tissue, blocking blood flow
    • - stiffness is "hardening of the arteries"
    • - Heart must work harder to push blood through vessels
  20. Risk factors for CVD
    • - Being overweight
    • - Physical inactivity
    • - Smoking
    • - High BP
    • - Diabetes
    • - High blood cholesterol

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
222954
Filename:
NUTR 225 Ch. 5
Updated:
2013-06-08 05:22:53
Tags:
Nutrition NUTR 225
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Description:
Nutrition 225 Final
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