NUTR 225 Ch. 5

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
222954
Filename:
NUTR 225 Ch. 5
Updated:
2013-06-08 01:22:53
Tags:
Nutrition NUTR 225
Folders:

Description:
Nutrition 225 Final
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Lipids, Three types?
    Diverse class of molecules that are insoluble in water

    • 1)Triglycerides
    • 2) Phospholipids
    • 3) Sterols
  2. Triglycerides
    Three fatty acid molecules, one glycerol molecule.
  3. Fatty acids
    • - long chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms
    • - Lengths: short (<6), medium (6-12), long (>13)
    • - Level of saturation: amount of hydrogen surrounding the carbon
  4. Glycerol
    a three-carbon alcohol that is the backbone of a triglyceride
  5. Saturated, Monounsaturated, and Polyunsaturated fatty acids
    • 1) Saturated: hydrogen atoms surrounding every carbon; no double bond
    • 2) Monounsaturated: lack hydrogen atoms in one region; have one double bond
    • 3) Polyunsaturated: lack hydrogen atoms in multiple locations; have 2+ double bonds
  6. Triglycerides: long chains and bent chains
    • - Long-chain: stack well together to a solid form at room temperature.
    • - Bent-chain: do not stack well, and therefore are liquids at room temperature.
  7. Hydrogenation
    • The addition of hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fatty acids.
    • - converts liquid fats into semisolid; margarine from plant oil
    • - often creates trans fatty acids
  8. Essential fatty acids
    1) Linoleic: omega-6 fatty acid; vegetables and nut oils; blood clotting and blood pressure

    2) Alpha-linolenic acid: omega-3 fatty acid; vegetables, fish, fish oils; inflammation, blood clotting, blood pressure
  9. Phospholipids
    • - Glycerol backbone, two fatty acids, phosphate
    • - soluble in water
    • - Made in our bodies
    • - Important components of cell membrane
  10. Sterols
    • Lipids containing multiple rings of carbon atoms
    • - essential components of cell membranes
    • - Made in our bodies
    • - Cholesterol is major sterol in body
  11. Fat is essential to many body functions, such as...
    • - Cell membrane structure
    • - Nerve cell transmissions
    • - Protection of internal organs
    • - Insulation to retain body heat
  12. Role of Fats
    • - Provides flavor and texture to foods
    • - Make us feel satiated
    • - Not digested and absorbed easily because it's insoluble
  13. Digestion of Fats
    • - Mouth-> Lingual lipase digests some triglycerides
    • - Stomach-> Mixed, broken into droplets
    • - Gallbadder-> Contracts due to secretion of CCK and secretin from the duodenal mucosal cells; releases bile into small intestine
    • - Small intestine-> Lipid-digesting enzymes from pancreas convert triglycerides into monoglycerides; also convert dietary cholesterol and phospholipids into their components; Micelles transport lipid digestion products to the enterocytes of the small intestine for absorption
    • - Intestinal mucosal cell-> fatty acids reattached to monoglycerides to re-form triglycerides; protein added to form chylomicron
  14. Chylomicron
    a lipoprotein produced by cells lining the small intestines
  15. How much fat should we eat?
    • According to AMDR, 20-35% of calories
    • Athletes/highly active people can reduce to 20-25% of calories
    • - Saturated fat: 7%
    • - Trans fatty acids: absolute minimum
  16. Visible fats and Hidden fats
    Visible: those we can see in foods (dressing, chicken skin)

    Hidden: added to processed or prepared foods to improve texture or taste
  17. Cardiovascular disease
    • - Dysfunction of the heart or blood vessels
    • - Can result in heart attack or stroke
  18. Three most common forms of CVD
    • 1) Coronary heart disease
    • 2) Stroke
    • 3) Hypertension
  19. Atherosclerosis
    • - Artery walls build up lipid deposits and scar tissue, blocking blood flow
    • - stiffness is "hardening of the arteries"
    • - Heart must work harder to push blood through vessels
  20. Risk factors for CVD
    • - Being overweight
    • - Physical inactivity
    • - Smoking
    • - High BP
    • - Diabetes
    • - High blood cholesterol

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview