NUTR 225 Ch. 6

Card Set Information

Author:
mynamebecait
ID:
222957
Filename:
NUTR 225 Ch. 6
Updated:
2013-06-08 02:30:08
Tags:
Nutrition NUTR
Folders:

Description:
Nutrition 225 Final
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user mynamebecait on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Proteins
    • large complex molecules composed of amino acids
    • - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
    • - primary source of nitrogen in diet
    • - 20 diff. amino acids used to make proteins
  2. Amino acids, Two types?
    - Essential amino acids: cannot be produced by our bodies; must be obtained from food, 9 of 20 are essential.

    -Nonessential amino acids: Can be made by our bodies
  3. Transcription
    • Use of the genetic information in DNA to make RNA.
    • - mRNA copies the genetic info and carries it to ribosome
  4. Translation
    Conversion of genetic info in RNA to assemble amino acids in the proper sequence to synthesis  a protein on the ribosome.
  5. Four levels of protein structure
    • 1) Primary structure: sequential order of amino acids
    • 2) Secondary structure: spiral shape due to chemical bonding between the amino acids
    • 3) Tertiary and quaternary structure: further folding into a unique 3D shape that may be globular or fibrous
  6. Denaturation
    • - Protein loses shape due to heat, acids/bases, heavy metals, or alcohol
    • - It's irreversible!
  7. Incomplete protein
    • Does not contain all essential amino acids in sufficient quantities.
    • - growth and health are compromised
    • - "low quality" protein
  8. Complete protein
    • contains sufficient amounts of all nine essential amino acids
    • - "high quality" protein
  9. Mutual supplementation
    Combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein
  10. Complementary proteins
    • Two protein sources that together supply all nine essential amino acids
    • e.g.: beans and rice
  11. Complementary food combinations
    • 1) Legumes + Grains/Nuts and Seeds: Rice and lentils
    • 2) Grains + Legumes: Peanut Butter and Bread
    • 3) Vegetables + Legumes: Tofu and Broccoli
    • 4) Nuts and Seeds + Legumes: Sesame seeds w/ mixed bean salad
  12. Digestion of Proteins
    • - Mouth-> Proteins in food are crushed and moistened by saliva
    • - Stomach-> HCl denatures proteins; Pepsin breaks down protein into single amino acids/polypeptides
    • - Small intestine-> Proteases secrete to digest polypeptides; cells in the wall of small intestine completely breakdown polypeptides into single amino acids
    • - Liver-> Amino acids are transported to liver
  13. Functions of Proteins
    • - Cell growth/repair/maintenance
    • - Enzymes
    • - Hormones
    • - Fluid and electrolyte balance
    • - pH balance
    • - Antibodies
    • - Energy source
  14. How much protein should we eat?
    • - Sedentary adults require 0.8g/kg of body weight (10-35% protein/kg)
    • - Children, adolescents, pregnant/lactating women, athletes, vegetarians require more
  15. Risk of too much protein
    • - High cholesterol and heart disease
    • - Possible bone loss
    • - Kidney disease
  16. Vegetarianism
    Diet of plant origin
  17. Different types of vegetarianism
    • 1) Semivegitarian: exclude or limit red meat
    • 2) Pescovegetarian: fish as only source of protein
    • 3) lacto-ovo-vegetarian: exclude animal flesh and seafood
    • 4) lactovegetarian: milk and cheese for animal source of protein
    • 5) ovovegetarian: excludes dairy, flesh, seafood
    • 6) vegan: not provide adequate B12, zinc, iron, or calcium
    • 7) Macrobiotic: can cause malnutrition and death
    • 8) Fruitarian: deficient in protein, calcium, zinc, iron, vitamin B12, riboflavin, etc.
  18. Protein-energy malnutrition, Two types?
    Disorder caused by inadequate intake of protein and energy

    • 1) Marasmus: disease resulting from severely inadequate intakes of protein, energy, etc...
    • symptoms: wasting of muscle tissue, stunted growth, stunted brain development, anemia

    • 2) Kwashiorkor: disease resulting from extremely low protein intake
    • symptoms: weight loss and muscle wasting, edema resulting in distention of belly, retarded growth and development
  19. Genetic diseases = protein abnormalities
    • - Phenylketonuria
    • - Sickle cell anemia
    • - Cystic fibrosis

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview