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Commander of all Union forces in the last year of the Civil War, led the Union to Victory
Union general who led a destructive march through Georgia, launching economic warfare on the south
Most 2 significant facts of the Civil War
- Slavery was ended in the U.S. (13th Amendment)
- Over 600,000 Americans died.
Period following the civil war in which southern states were readmitted, the status of former slaves was determined,and physical destruction was rebuilt
What were the 3 views of the Radical Republicans?
- Punish Southern Sates for their role in the Civil War
- Redefine property ownership
- Give freedom full citizenship
What Abraham Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction?
- Reunite the country as soon as possible
- Do not punish the south
- 10% Plan
10% of voters taken an oath of allegiance and a state is back in
What was Andrew Johnson's Plan for Reconstruction?
- Gave power of Reconstruction to Southern Government and former confederate officials
- Black codes
What was the biggest achievement of Congressional Reconstruction?
African American voting rights and citizenship
Laws created to limit the rights of former slaves
3 Examples of Black Codes?
Northerners who moved South during Reconstruction in order to profit by starting businesses, buying land and investing
Farm Labor System:
Field labors work on someone else's land for a share of the crops
The occupation of most slaves
How was Reconstruction a Failure?
- Former slaves still relied on white people
- The Federal Government gave up on trying to enforce equality in the south.
Instituted by southern states to keep African Americans from voting
Poll Taxes and Literacy Tests
Developed after the Civil War when new railroads linked western ranges to eastern markets
Many clashes between the US army and Native Americans
Government policy on seizing Indian lands
400,000 families took advantage of free land on Great Plains, they had to stay for 5 years and it was their's for good.
Pioneered by Jane Addams who fought poverty and other social problems in the cities
Settlement House Movement
Steamship's poorest accommodations.
Almost all immigrants could afford it.
What things helped New Immigrants adapt to life in America?
- Foreign Language Newspapers
- Political Machines
- Benevolent Societies
Method of making steel.
Sped up industrialization
What is our national game?
What were the conditions for the industrial laborers?
- Few benefits
- Low Pay
- Long Hours
*Discuses the impact of the Columbian Exchange on the history of the Americas. Should Columbus be viewed as a hero or villain? Explain.
(Just talk about the 4 Positive and 3 Negative Effects and then give your opinion (3)
- Various cultures coming into contact
- Exchange of languages and trade
- Metals and other resources made the Europeans rich
- New food was discovered
- Large population growth in the Americas
- Deadly diseases spread to Natives
- Encomienda System
- He was a villain because he treated the Natives badly.
- He thought that when the Natives put the crown on him that they were handing over authority over to him.
- He said that the Natives were nice so that meant they'd be easily conquered
*Compare the Puritans, Pilgrims, and Jamestown colonists.
Where did each group settle?
Why did each group come to America?
- Puritans:Definition: Separatists/Dissenters
- Settled: Massachusetts Bay Colony
- Came: They wanted religious freedom, but wanted to stay apart of the church of England.
- Definition: Small group of Separatists
- Settled: Plymouth
- Came: Wanted to leave the church of England.
- Definition: British who wanted farm tobacco.
- Settled: Jamestown, Virginia
- Came: To make money
*Compare the British Army and the Colonial Army during the American War for Independence.
What advantages did each side possess?
Did the British lose a war that they should have won?
(Compare the advantages and explain how the British could have won)
- British Advantages:Well trained army
- Ample resources
- Alliances with Loyalists and Native Americans
- Colonial Advantages:Strong military leadership
- Fighting on home territory
- Allies with france (which gave us money and troops)
- Revolutionary cause
- How the British could've won:
- Yes because all they did was destroy major towns.
- Their command structures were too far away.
- They shouldn't have had the Hessians fighting for them because they didn't fight correctly. The Hessians were only fighting for money and ended up deserting the British.
*Describe two Amendments in the Bill of Rights. Why are these Amendments important?
- 1st Amendment:
- Freedom of Speech, Press, Assembly, and Religion:Not everyone can be the same
- People should be able to express their opinion without restraint
- Everyone can responsibly speak their minds
- No one should be able to control religion
- We have many different cultures in America
- 2nd Amendment:
- Right to Bear Arms:Can own weaponsPeople know only to use this as a last resort
- Protect themselves
- Robbery or break-in
*Describe the roles of the 3 branches of government. How is each branch able to check the power of the other branches?
- Executive Branch:Definition: Enforces laws
- Heads: President/VP
- Legislative Branch:
- Definition: Makes laws
- Heads: Congress
- Judicial Branch:
- Definition: Interprets Laws
- Heads: Supreme court and lower federal courts
- Each branch is able to check the power of the other branches by Checks and Balances.
- This gives each branch the means to restrain the other two.