PSY 201 Ch. 6

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  1. False Memory: Two types?
    1) Reconstructive Remembering: We tend to "fill in" parts of our memories based on past experiences, expectations

    2) Reconstructed Memories: Loftus' research shows that false memories can easily be implanted in individuals (reconstruction leads to fabrication of memories)
  2. Loftus and Palmer's Study
    • Leading Question Effect
    • - Memory is not perfect reflection of reality
    • - Any even you remember is a combo of the original event plus related info
    • - This distorts our memories and influences later eyewitness testimony
  3. When does forgetting occur?
    Forgetting can occur at any memory stage
  4. Why do we forget (3)?
    1) Enoding Failure: We cannot remember what we do not encode into LTM (Nickerson and Adams: Most people unable to select correct penny; our memory is selective)

    2) Storage Decay: Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay; Ebbhinghaus' "forgetting curve": after five days you remember about 22%

    3) Retrieval Failure: Although the info is stored in LTM, it cannot be accessed. TWO TYPES: (1) Proactive interference- old info interferes w/retrieval of new info. (2) Retroactive interference- New info interferes w/old info.
  5. The Feeling of Knowing
    People know that they know something, even when they are unable to recall it
  6. Tip-of-Tongue (TOT) Effect
    When we try to recall a specific item that seems familiar yet eludes us
  7. Neuroscience of Forgetting (2)
    1) Hippocampus: involves in the formation and storage of memories

    2) Cerebellum: Involves in the procedural memory and verbal working memory
  8. Amnesia
    • Memory loss caused by physical problems in the brain
    • - Trauma: head injuries, brain surgery, stroke, infection
    • - Neural degeneration (e.g. Alzheimer's)
  9. Two types of Amnesia
    Retrograde: Difficulty retrieving memories from before the trauma (temporary)

    Anterograde: Difficulty forming new memories after trauma (New events not transferred to LTM, like 50 First Dates)
  10. Improve Memory: Elaboration
    -Involves forming connections between to-be-remembered input and other info in memory

    -Semantic coding: the deeper the level of processing, the higher participant's accuracy

    -Mnemonics: to-be-remembered items are combined into sentences or new words (e.g. Names of the Great Lakes "HOMES")
  11. Improve Memory: Encoding specificity principle (3)
    - The ability to remember an item depends on the match in context between encoding and retrieval; similar-> improves memory; different-> impairs memory

    - Retrieval cues should be maximally similar to encoding cues

    - Mood-dependent memory: people recall better when their mood at the time of recall matches their mood at the time of learning

    - State-dependent memory: Material is easier to retrieve when people are in the same chemically intoxicated state as they were in at encoding
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PSY 201 Ch. 6
2013-06-08 20:50:20
PSY 201

PSY 201 Final
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