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False Memory: Two types?
1) Reconstructive Remembering: We tend to "fill in" parts of our memories based on past experiences, expectations
2) Reconstructed Memories: Loftus' research shows that false memories can easily be implanted in individuals (reconstruction leads to fabrication of memories)
Loftus and Palmer's Study
- Leading Question Effect
- - Memory is not perfect reflection of reality
- - Any even you remember is a combo of the original event plus related info
- - This distorts our memories and influences later eyewitness testimony
When does forgetting occur?
Forgetting can occur at any memory stage
Why do we forget (3)?
1) Enoding Failure: We cannot remember what we do not encode into LTM (Nickerson and Adams: Most people unable to select correct penny; our memory is selective)
2) Storage Decay: Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay; Ebbhinghaus' "forgetting curve": after five days you remember about 22%
3) Retrieval Failure: Although the info is stored in LTM, it cannot be accessed. TWO TYPES: (1) Proactive interference- old info interferes w/retrieval of new info. (2) Retroactive interference- New info interferes w/old info.
The Feeling of Knowing
People know that they know something, even when they are unable to recall it
Tip-of-Tongue (TOT) Effect
When we try to recall a specific item that seems familiar yet eludes us
Neuroscience of Forgetting (2)
1) Hippocampus: involves in the formation and storage of memories
2) Cerebellum: Involves in the procedural memory and verbal working memory
- Memory loss caused by physical problems in the brain
- - Trauma: head injuries, brain surgery, stroke, infection
- - Neural degeneration (e.g. Alzheimer's)
Two types of Amnesia
Retrograde: Difficulty retrieving memories from before the trauma (temporary)
Anterograde: Difficulty forming new memories after trauma (New events not transferred to LTM, like 50 First Dates)
Improve Memory: Elaboration
-Involves forming connections between to-be-remembered input and other info in memory
-Semantic coding: the deeper the level of processing, the higher participant's accuracy
-Mnemonics: to-be-remembered items are combined into sentences or new words (e.g. Names of the Great Lakes "HOMES")
Improve Memory: Encoding specificity principle (3)
- The ability to remember an item depends on the match in context between encoding and retrieval; similar-> improves memory; different-> impairs memory
- Retrieval cues should be maximally similar to encoding cues
- Mood-dependent memory: people recall better when their mood at the time of recall matches their mood at the time of learning
- State-dependent memory: Material is easier to retrieve when people are in the same chemically intoxicated state as they were in at encoding