PSY 201 Ch. 7
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How do we learn (3)?
1) By association: Association is a fundamental form of "prediction; Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence
2) Stimulus-Stimulus Learning: Learning to associate on stimulus w/another e.g.: lighting + thunder = we see lighting-> we wince anticipating thunder
3) Response-Consequence Learning: e.g.: balancing a ball(response) -> receiving food(consequence)
Classical Conditioning (stimulus-stimulus)
- Pavlov's Experiment
- 1) Unconditioned Stimulus (US): dog
- 2) Unconditioned Response (UR): dog's salivation
- 3) Neutral Stimulus (CS)
- -- Before conditioning: food causes salivation
- --During conditioning: neural stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR)
- --After conditioning: neutral stimulus (now a conditioned stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now a conditioned response, CR)
Association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place during the conditioning stage
- Using a different CS to create the same CR in a subject.
- e.g.: CS1 is a light notifying the rat that cheese is coming. But, CS1 is now followed by CS2, which is a bell. He does not need to learn another CS because he already has a predictor.
- Procedure in which an established CS is used to condition a second neutral stimulus
- - Ring the bell, flash the light, cheese appears
- When the US does not follow the CS, CR begins to decrease and eventually is eliminated
- - Ring the bel, but do not show the food anymore, it eventually begins to decrease CR and no longer work
- After a rest period, an extinguished CR will return
- - if the CS (tone) is presented alone, the CR becomes extinct again
- Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS
- - Little Albert: Loud noise (US) -> Fear/crying (UR) -> Rat (CS) -> Fear of rats (CR)
- - Fear extends to rabbits, fur coats, etc..
Ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal an US
- Learning that an event signals the absence of the US can produce a response opposite of the original CR
- - Green light = food -> CR
- - Red light = absence of food -> absence of CR
- Pre-exposure of the subject to the CS before conditioning slows the rate of CR acquisition
- - Flash light w/no US -> later, try to use CS (light) to train Bob to create a response
Forming an association between behaviors and their consequences
Repeat Pleasure: The Law of Effect
- -If a response is followed by a satisfying consequence, it will be strengthened
- -If a response is followed by an unsatisfying consequence, it will be weakened
Types of Reinforcers (3)
1) Positive vs Negative: Adding something to strengthen a response (giving an allowance for chores). Taking something away to strengthen a response (taking a TV away)
2) Primary & Secondary: An innately reinforcing stimulus (e.g. food or drink). A learned reinforcer by associating w/primary reinforcer (e.g. money -> food)
3) Immediate & Delayed: A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior (e.g. a rat gets a food pellet for a bar press). A reinforce that is delayed in time for a certain behavior (e.g. monthly paycheck)
1) Continuous reinforcement schedule: reinforces the desired response each time it occurs (if the reinforcement stops, then extinction occurs)
2) Partial reinforcement schedules: reinforces a response only part of the time (slower learning, but also slower extinction)
Ratio schedules (Number of responses)
- 1) Fixed-Ratio schedules: Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses (e.g. salesperson paid for every 10 sales)
- (problem: stop responding for a period after each reinforcement)
2) Variable-Ratio Schedule: reinforcer delivered after an unpredictable number of responses (e.g. "1 in 12 wins!") Increase the likelihood of response, and high resistance to extinction
Interval Schedules (Amount of time)
1) Fixed-Interval schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed (e.g. monthly check). Produces low response rates
2) Variable-Interval schedule: Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responding. High resistance to extinction
Punishment, Two types?
1) Positive: Presentation of an aversive event after responding lowers the future likelihood of that response (e.g. receiving a parking ticket)
2) Negative: Removal of a positive event after responding lowers the future likelihood of that response (e.g. taking away allowance)
Use punishment to suppress a behavior, but also teach the child how to act appropriately
- Many companies now allow employees to share profits and participate in company ownership (Bi-Mart and Co ops)
Learning by Observation
- Higher animals learn through observing and imitating others
- Modeling: Natural tendency to imitate behavior of significant others. Strongest when model is viewed positively and model is rewarded for behavior
Bandura's Bobo Doll Study
Children who were showed the video of adults being praised or rewarded for hitting the Bobo doll also acted that way towards the Bobo doll as well.
Research shows that viewing media violence leads to an increased expression of aggression
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