NUTR 225 Ch. 7

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  1. Fluids
    • -Substances composed of freely moving molecules
    • -Have ability to conform to the shape of container

    -50-70% of healthy adult is composed of fluids
  2. Extracellular fluid
    - Tissue fluid found between the cells w/in tissues and organs of the body

    -Plasma, fluid portion of blood that carries blood cells
  3. Intracellular fluid
    -Fluid within the the body cells
  4. Composition of body fluid tissues
    Tissue type: lean tissues = high fluid content

    Gender: males = more lean tissue

    Age: lean tissue lost with age
  5. Electrolytes
    Mineral salts dissolved in water, including: sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus
  6. Function of Fluids
    • -Blood volume is the amount of fluid in the blood
    • -Increased blood volume can cause blood pressure to rise (hypertension)
    • -Decreased blood volume can cause low blood pressure
    • -Fluids help maintain body temperature
    • -Fluids protect and lubricate body tissues
  7. Functions of Electrolytes
    • -Help regulate fluid balance
    • -Help nerves respond to stimuli
    • -signal our muscles to contract
  8. Thirst mechanism
    Cluster of nerve cells that stimulate our desire to drink
  9. How is water lost from our bodies?
    • Urine
    • Sweat
    • Exhalation
    • Feces
  10. How is water gained for our bodies?
    • Beverages
    • Food
    • Metabolic reactions
  11. Functions of water; Recommended intake?
    • - Essential for life
    • - Required for fluid and electrolyte balance and metabolic reactions

    - 1-1.5 ml for each kcal expended
  12. Too much water vs. Not enough water
    Too much: dilution of sodium (hyponatremia)

    Too little: dehydration
  13. Functions of sodium
    • - Fluid and electrolyte balance
    • - Associated w/ BP and pH balance
    • - Required for nerve impulse transmission
    • - Transport of nutrients (e.g. glucose) into body cells
  14. Recommended sodium intake?
    • 1.5g/day required
    • <2.3g/day recommended
  15. Too much sodium vs. Not enough sodium
    Too much: Hypernatremia, abnormally high blood sodium concentrate; high blood volume, edema, high BP

    Too little: Hyponatremia, abnormally low blood sodium level; consume too much water and fail to replace sodium
  16. Functions of potassium
    • - Fluid/electrolyte balance
    • - muscle contractions, transmission of nerve impulses
    • - lower BP
    • - maintain acid-base balance
  17. Recommended intake of Potassium
  18. Too much potassium vs. Not enough potassium
    Too much: Hyperkalemia, high blood potassium level; patients w/kidney disease, alter heart rhythm

    Too little: Hypokalemia, low blood potassium level; patients w/kidney disease
  19. Functions of chloride
    • - Maintaining fluid balance
    • - Assists w/immune system
    • - Component of HCl in stomach
  20. Recommended intake of chloride
  21. Too much vs. Not enough chloride
    Too much: Lead to hypertension

    Too little: Rare, but can occur w/people who have eating disorders
  22. Functions of Phosphorus
    • - Major intracellular negatively charged electrolyte
    • - Required for fluid balance
    • - Bone formation
    • - Regulates biochemical pathways by activating/deactivating enzymes
    • - Found in ATP, DNA, RNA
  23. Recommended intake of Phosphorus
  24. Too much phosphorus vs. Not enough phosphorus
    Too much: too many Vitamin D supplements; causes muscle spasms, convulsions

    Too little: Deficiencies are rare
  25. Dehydration
    • Water loss exceeds water intake
    • - Due to heavy exercise or high environmental temperatures
    • - Infants/elderly more at risk
  26. Causes of dehydration
    • - Diarrhea
    • - Vomiting
    • - Fever
    • - Burns
    • - Poorly managed diabetes
    • - Abuse of diuretics or laxatives
  27. Heart cramps
    • Painful muscle cramps, in abdomen, arms, or legs
    • - develop during vigorous activities
    • - spasms last seconds or minutes
  28. Heat exhaustion
    • - Occurs from vigorous activity in heat
    • - symptoms include cramps, weakness, vomiting, dizziness, elevated BP/heart rate
  29. Heatstroke
    • Body's temperature regulation mechanisms fail
    • - hot, humid environments
    • - symptoms include rapid pulse, hot/dry skin, high body temp, weakness
Card Set:
NUTR 225 Ch. 7
2013-06-09 19:43:07
NUTR Nutrition 225

NUTR 225 Final
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