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2013-06-10 05:29:10

neuro 110
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  1. suvorexant
    orexin receptor blocker
  2. orexin
    modafinil, provigil
  3. SCN -- SCG -- pineal
    inhibition all inhibits the production of melatonin
  4. zeitgeber
    light can be used as a time keeper to entrain the cycle .. tme keeper
  5. alcohol and opiates
    quiet neurons that would ordinarily inhibit dopamine neurons - opiates also mimic effect of dopamine on NA
  6. cocaine
    blocks reuptake of dopamine
  7. dopamine mediation of addiction
    in the VTA (ventral tegmental area) leads to the nucleus accumbens via the nigrostriatal bundle
  8. extinction
    the only way to diminish a learned compensatory response
  9. recidivism
  10. abstention
    cold turkey
  11. chelation therapies
    removes heavy metals/bad stuff from body - not effective and possibly dangerous
  12. immunological compromise
    vaccines now only give antigens you need - so you would need high doses for it to be deleterious
  13. thimerosal
  14. hydrocephalus
    pressure in skull increases because flow of CSF is blocked
  15. corpus callosum
    poor developed, similar problem in males/females
  16. anticonvulsants
    valproate and phenytoin - block sodium channels, induce apoptosis
  17. anesthetics
    nitrous oxides and ketamine - apoptic death via NMDA
  18. Xanax
    tranquilizers - mimic phenobarbital effect
  19. PCP
    phencyclidine - NMDA receptor inhibitor - induces apoptosis
  20. GABA
    inhibitory - GABA receptors - phenobarbital
  21. glutamate
    excitatory - NMDA - MK-801
  22. sequential hermaphrodites
  23. SCN
    suprachiasmatic nucleus
  24. XY fetuses have testosterone, but no receptors - look and act like females
    Androgen insensitivity sydrome
  25. XX females are partially masculinized, report tomboy activities
    congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  26. Sxr
    SRY gene attached to X chromosome; consequence?
  27. SRY
    Y chromosome - testis determining factor
  28. alpha-fetoprotein
    prevents females from being masculinized, increases over time of pregnancy,  -- attracts estrogen before it enters the neuron
  29. estrogen receptor - where?
    in areas of brain that are masculinized
  30. testosterone --> estrogen
    aromatase and happens in male neurons with receptors
  31. testosterone --> DHT
    • DHT: Dihydrotestosterone¬†
    • 5-alpha-reductase
  32. seasonal affective disorder
    predominantly in women; in winter = depressed, in summer they feel fine and increase activity; can be treated by sitting in front of lights with natural light spectrum
  33. bipolar disorder
    BDNF is decreased, neuronal death, lithium is effective in treating
  34. Area 25
    if deregulated, it will release the emotional brain from rational thought -- stimulation of Area 25 normalizes input into amygdala
  35. ECT
    electroconvulsive therapy ; increases BDNF and neurogenesis, some memory loss
  36. exercise
    is as good as SSRI in treating depression - increases neurogenesis, increases hippocampal neurons, increases BDNF
  37. antidepressants
    increase neurogenesis and repopulate the hippocampus; increase BDNF and BCL-2
  38. Cushing's Syndrome
    people with high levels of cortisol are prone to depression
  39. SSRI
    • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor;
    • may cause mania, decreases appetite, may increase of suicide, may increase osteoperosis
  40. tricyclic antidepressants
    imipramine blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine
  41. MAOIs
    monoamine oxidase inhibitors - increase serotonin and norepinephrine levels
  42. monoamine depletion hypothesis
    drug: reserpine reduces monoamine and induces depression
  43. Guevedoces
    Dominican Republican, DHT deficiency, look like males and get secondary masculinized characteristics after puberty