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The lymphatic sys includes a network of ____ vessels called ____ which carry ____.
Lymph is .....
A fluid similar to plasma but w/ a lower concentration of proteins
A series of ____ ____ are connected to the lymphatic vessels.
Lymphocytes are . . . .
Cels that attack invading organisms, abnormal cells & foreign proteins
The lymphatic sys also helps maintain ____ ____& eliminate local variations in the composition of ____ ____.
- blood volume
- interstitial fluid
Lymph flows through a series of lymphatics that originates in the ____ ____.
The lymphatic vessels empty into what 2 ducts?
- Thoracic Duct
- R lymphatic duct
The 3 classes of lymphocytes are ____, ____ & ____.
- T-Cells (thymus dependent)
- B-Cells (bone marrow derived)
- Natural Killer Cells (NK)
Cytoxic T-Cells attack . . .
foreign cells or body cells infected by virus
Regulatory T-Cells include ____ T-Cells & ____ T-Cells & do what?
- Regulate & coordinate immune response
B-Cells can ____ into Plasma cells which _____ & _____ antibodies that react w/ specific ____.
Antigens are . . . .
Specific chemical target to which antibodies bind
Antibodies are also known as ____ or ____.
Immunoglobulins or IG
B-Cells are also responsible for ____ - ____ immunity or ____ immunity.
NK cells attack ____ ____, normal cells ____ with ____& ____ cells.
- foreign cells
- infected w/ viruses
NK cells perform a function known as ____ ____.
The production & development of lymphocytes is known as ____ & involves ____ ____, ____ & peripheral ____ ____.
- Bone marrow, thymus, lymphoid tissues
A lymphoid nodule consists of . . . .
loose connective tissue that contains densely packed lymphocytes
Tonsils are ____ ____ in the pharynx wall.
Important lymphoid organs include ____ ____, ____ & the ____.
Lymphoid organs & tissues are distributed in areas that are what?
Especially vulnerable to invasion by pathogens
Encapsulated masses of lymphoid tissue that contain lymphocytes are called?
What do lymph nodes do?
- Monitor & filter lymph b/f it drains into venous sys
- Remove antigens & initiate appropriate immune responses
What is the location of the thymus & what happens there?
- behind the sternum
- T- Cells mature there
What organ contains the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body?
What 3 functions does the spleen perform?
- Removes antigens & damaged blood cells fr circulation
- Initiates responses B & C Cells
- Stores iron fr recycled RBCs
What are the cellular components of the spleen & what is their composition
- Red Pulp-Contains lg quantities of RBCs
- White Pulp-resemble lymphoid nodules
What are 2 categories of body defenses within the lymphatic sys?
- Nonspecific Defenses
- Specific Defenses
What do nonspecific defenses do?
Prevent approach, deny entrance to & limit spread of living & non living hazards
What do specific defenses do?
- T-Cells - Provide cell mediated immunity
- B-Cells - Provide anitbody mediated immunity
Physical barriers for nonspecific defenses are provided by?
Skin, epithelia & secretions of the digestive sys
Phagocytes in nonspecific defense include what 2 things?
- Microphages - Neutruphils & Eosinophils
- Macrophages - cells of the monocyte macrophage sys
Phagocytes move between cells by ____ & show ____.
- chemotaxis aka sensitivity & orientation to chemical stimuli
Immunological Surveillance involves what?
Monitoring of tissues by NK cells that are sensitive to abnormal antigens on surfaces of normal cells
NK cells kill both ____ ____ that display tumor specific surface antigens & ____ - ____ cells
- cancer cells
- virus infected
What are interferons?
Sm proteins released by activated lymphocytes, macrophages & tissue cells infected w/ viruses
What are cytokines?
Chemical messengers that are released by tissue cells & coordinated local activities
Plasma contains 11 special complement proteins. They are complement because?
The actions of these proteins complement the actions of antibodies
Inflammation represents . . . .
A coordinated nonspecific response to tissue inj
A ____ can inhibit pathogens & accelerate metabolic processes.
What constitutes a fever?
Body temp > than 32.2 C or 99 F
Innate Immunity is what?
Specific Immunity that is genetically determined & present @ birth
What are the two types of specific immunity?
- Innate Immunity
- Acquired Immunity
What are the 2 types of acquired immunity?
- Active immunity
- Passive Immunity
When does active immunity appear?
Following exposure to an antigen
Passive immunity is produced by the . . . .
Transfer of antibodies fr another source
What are the 4 characteristics of specific immunity?
- Memory Cells
What are major histocompatibility complex proteins?
- Antigen binding membrane receptors
- Genetically determined & differ among individuals
What are 2 types of major histocompatibility proteins & what do they do?
- Class 1 MHCs - Act as a red flag & tell immune sys to "Im abnormal -- Kill em"
- Class 2 MHCs - Tells immune sys "Antigen is dangerous--Get rid of it"
Activated T-Cells differentiate into what 4 types?
- Cytotoxic T-Cells
- Memory T-Cells
- Suppressor T-Cels
- Helper T-Cells
What are B-Cells responsible for?
Antibody mediated immunity
An active B-Cell divides and produces ____ ____ & ____ ____. ____ are produced by plasma cells
- plasma cells
- memory B-Cells
An antigen-antibody complex is formed when an ____ ____ & an ____ bind.
What are the 5 classes of antibodies in body fluids?
- Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
- Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
- Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
- Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
- Immunoglobulin D (IgD)
Immunoglobulin G is responsible for?
Resistance against many bacteria, viruses & bacterial toxins
Immunoglobulin M is responsible for?
First antibody secreted in response to an antigen
Immunoglobulin A is found in ____ ____.
Immunoglobulin E stimulates chemicals accelerating _____.
Immunoglobulin D is found on the ____ of ____.
surfaces of B-Cells
Antibodies can eliminate antigens by ____, ____, ____, ____, ____ & ____.
- activation of compliment
- attraction or enhancement phagocytes
- stimulation of inflammation
The antibodies produced by plasma cells upon first exposure to an antigen are agents of the ____ ____.
Maximum antibody levels appear during the ____ ____ that follows subsequent exposure to same antigen as primary.
What 4 tasks do interleukins accomplish?
- Increase T-Cell sensitivity to antigens
- Stimulate B-Cell activity
- Plasma Cell formation & antibody production
- Enhance nonspecific defenses
Interferons slow the spread of virus by . . . .
making the synthesizing cells neighbors resistant to viral infections
____ ____ develop when the immune response mistakenly targets normal body cells & tissues
In an ____ ____, either the immune sys doesnt develop normally or the immune response is somehow blocked
Lymph collected fr the lower abdomen, pelvis & lower limbs is carried by the _______.
Lymphocytes responsible for providing cell mediated immunity are called _____.
Cytotoxic T Cells
B cells are responsible for____.
Antibody mediated immunity
Lymphoid stem cells that can form all types of lymphocytes occur in the _____.
Lymphatic vessels are found in all portions of the body except?
The largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body is contained in the ____.
RBCs that are damaged of defective are removed fr circulation by the _____.
Phagocytes move thru capillary walls by squeezing between adj endothelial cells during a process called _____.
Perforins are destructive proteins assoc w/ activity of ____.
Compliment activation stimulates inflammation, attracts phagocytes & enhances phagocytes. T or F
Inflammation aids in temp repair @ an inj site, slows spread of pathogens & facilitates permanent repair. T or F
Memory B cells respond to subsequent infections that involve the same antigen. T or F
Which 2 lg collecting vessels are responsible for returning lymph to the veins of the circulatory sys?
Left and Right thoracic ducts
The right thoracic duct collects lymph fr?
right side of the body above the diaphram
The left thoracic duct collects lymph fr?
- the left side of the body above the diaphram
- the whole body below the diaphram
Compared w/ nonspecific defenses, specific defenses
Provide protection against threats on an individual basis
T cells and B cells can only be activated by. . .
Exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site on a cell membrane