Lymphatic System

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medic11
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22309
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Lymphatic System
Updated:
2010-06-06 14:46:37
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Chapter Lymphatic sys
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lymphatic system
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  1. The lymphatic sys includes a network of ____ vessels called ____ which carry ____.
    • lymphatic
    • lymphatics
    • lymph
  2. Lymph is .....
    A fluid similar to plasma but w/ a lower concentration of proteins
  3. A series of ____ ____ are connected to the lymphatic vessels.
    lymphoid organs
  4. Lymphocytes are . . . .
    Cels that attack invading organisms, abnormal cells & foreign proteins
  5. The lymphatic sys also helps maintain ____ ____& eliminate local variations in the composition of ____ ____.
    • blood volume
    • interstitial fluid
  6. Lymph flows through a series of lymphatics that originates in the ____ ____.
    lymphatic capillaries
  7. The lymphatic vessels empty into what 2 ducts?
    • Thoracic Duct
    • R lymphatic duct
  8. The 3 classes of lymphocytes are ____, ____ & ____.
    • T-Cells (thymus dependent)
    • B-Cells (bone marrow derived)
    • Natural Killer Cells (NK)
  9. Cytoxic T-Cells attack . . .
    foreign cells or body cells infected by virus
  10. Regulatory T-Cells include ____ T-Cells & ____ T-Cells & do what?
    • Helper
    • Suppressor
    • Regulate & coordinate immune response
  11. B-Cells can ____ into Plasma cells which _____ & _____ antibodies that react w/ specific ____.
    • differentiate
    • produce
    • secrete
    • antigens
  12. Antigens are . . . .
    Specific chemical target to which antibodies bind
  13. Antibodies are also known as ____ or ____.
    Immunoglobulins or IG
  14. B-Cells are also responsible for ____ - ____ immunity or ____ immunity.
    • antibody-mediated
    • humoral
  15. NK cells attack ____ ____, normal cells ____ with ____& ____ cells.
    • foreign cells
    • infected w/ viruses
    • cancer
  16. NK cells perform a function known as ____ ____.
    immunological surveillance
  17. The production & development of lymphocytes is known as ____ & involves ____ ____, ____ & peripheral ____ ____.
    • lymphopoiesis
    • Bone marrow, thymus, lymphoid tissues
  18. A lymphoid nodule consists of . . . .
    loose connective tissue that contains densely packed lymphocytes
  19. Tonsils are ____ ____ in the pharynx wall.
    Lymphoid Nodules
  20. Important lymphoid organs include ____ ____, ____ & the ____.
    • lymph nodes
    • thymus
    • spleen
  21. Lymphoid organs & tissues are distributed in areas that are what?
    Especially vulnerable to invasion by pathogens
  22. Encapsulated masses of lymphoid tissue that contain lymphocytes are called?
    Lymph Nodes
  23. What do lymph nodes do?
    • Monitor & filter lymph b/f it drains into venous sys
    • Remove antigens & initiate appropriate immune responses
  24. What is the location of the thymus & what happens there?
    • behind the sternum
    • T- Cells mature there
  25. What organ contains the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body?
    Spleen
  26. What 3 functions does the spleen perform?
    • Removes antigens & damaged blood cells fr circulation
    • Initiates responses B & C Cells
    • Stores iron fr recycled RBCs
  27. What are the cellular components of the spleen & what is their composition
    • Red Pulp-Contains lg quantities of RBCs
    • White Pulp-resemble lymphoid nodules
  28. What are 2 categories of body defenses within the lymphatic sys?
    • Nonspecific Defenses
    • Specific Defenses
  29. What do nonspecific defenses do?
    Prevent approach, deny entrance to & limit spread of living & non living hazards
  30. What do specific defenses do?
    • T-Cells - Provide cell mediated immunity
    • B-Cells - Provide anitbody mediated immunity
  31. Physical barriers for nonspecific defenses are provided by?
    Skin, epithelia & secretions of the digestive sys
  32. Phagocytes in nonspecific defense include what 2 things?
    • Microphages - Neutruphils & Eosinophils
    • Macrophages - cells of the monocyte macrophage sys
  33. Phagocytes move between cells by ____ & show ____.
    • diapedesis
    • chemotaxis aka sensitivity & orientation to chemical stimuli
  34. Immunological Surveillance involves what?
    Monitoring of tissues by NK cells that are sensitive to abnormal antigens on surfaces of normal cells
  35. NK cells kill both ____ ____ that display tumor specific surface antigens & ____ - ____ cells
    • cancer cells
    • virus infected
  36. What are interferons?
    Sm proteins released by activated lymphocytes, macrophages & tissue cells infected w/ viruses
  37. What are cytokines?
    Chemical messengers that are released by tissue cells & coordinated local activities
  38. Plasma contains 11 special complement proteins. They are complement because?
    The actions of these proteins complement the actions of antibodies
  39. Inflammation represents . . . .
    A coordinated nonspecific response to tissue inj
  40. A ____ can inhibit pathogens & accelerate metabolic processes.
    Fever
  41. What constitutes a fever?
    Body temp > than 32.2 C or 99 F
  42. Innate Immunity is what?
    Specific Immunity that is genetically determined & present @ birth
  43. What are the two types of specific immunity?
    • Innate Immunity
    • Acquired Immunity
  44. What are the 2 types of acquired immunity?
    • Active immunity
    • Passive Immunity
  45. When does active immunity appear?
    Following exposure to an antigen
  46. Passive immunity is produced by the . . . .
    Transfer of antibodies fr another source
  47. What are the 4 characteristics of specific immunity?
    • Specificity
    • Versatility
    • Memory Cells
    • Tolerance
  48. What are major histocompatibility complex proteins?
    • Antigen binding membrane receptors
    • Genetically determined & differ among individuals
  49. What are 2 types of major histocompatibility proteins & what do they do?
    • Class 1 MHCs - Act as a red flag & tell immune sys to "Im abnormal -- Kill em"
    • Class 2 MHCs - Tells immune sys "Antigen is dangerous--Get rid of it"
  50. Activated T-Cells differentiate into what 4 types?
    • Cytotoxic T-Cells
    • Memory T-Cells
    • Suppressor T-Cels
    • Helper T-Cells
  51. What are B-Cells responsible for?
    Antibody mediated immunity
  52. An active B-Cell divides and produces ____ ____ & ____ ____. ____ are produced by plasma cells
    • plasma cells
    • memory B-Cells
    • Antibodies
  53. An antigen-antibody complex is formed when an ____ ____ & an ____ bind.
    • Antibody Molecule
    • Antigen
  54. What are the 5 classes of antibodies in body fluids?
    • Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
    • Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
    • Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
    • Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
    • Immunoglobulin D (IgD)
  55. Immunoglobulin G is responsible for?
    Resistance against many bacteria, viruses & bacterial toxins
  56. Immunoglobulin M is responsible for?
    First antibody secreted in response to an antigen
  57. Immunoglobulin A is found in ____ ____.
    glandular secretions
  58. Immunoglobulin E stimulates chemicals accelerating _____.
    inflammation
  59. Immunoglobulin D is found on the ____ of ____.
    surfaces of B-Cells
  60. Antibodies can eliminate antigens by ____, ____, ____, ____, ____ & ____.
    • neutralization
    • precipitation
    • agglutination
    • activation of compliment
    • attraction or enhancement phagocytes
    • stimulation of inflammation
  61. The antibodies produced by plasma cells upon first exposure to an antigen are agents of the ____ ____.
    primary response
  62. Maximum antibody levels appear during the ____ ____ that follows subsequent exposure to same antigen as primary.
    secondary response
  63. What 4 tasks do interleukins accomplish?
    • Increase T-Cell sensitivity to antigens
    • Stimulate B-Cell activity
    • Plasma Cell formation & antibody production
    • Enhance nonspecific defenses
  64. Interferons slow the spread of virus by . . . .
    making the synthesizing cells neighbors resistant to viral infections
  65. ____ ____ develop when the immune response mistakenly targets normal body cells & tissues
    Autoimmune Disorders
  66. In an ____ ____, either the immune sys doesnt develop normally or the immune response is somehow blocked
    Immunodeficiency Disease
  67. Lymph collected fr the lower abdomen, pelvis & lower limbs is carried by the _______.
    Thoracic duct
  68. Lymphocytes responsible for providing cell mediated immunity are called _____.
    Cytotoxic T Cells
  69. B cells are responsible for____.
    Antibody mediated immunity
  70. Lymphoid stem cells that can form all types of lymphocytes occur in the _____.
    Bone Marrow
  71. Lymphatic vessels are found in all portions of the body except?
    CNS
  72. The largest collection of lymphoid tissue in the body is contained in the ____.
    adult spleen
  73. RBCs that are damaged of defective are removed fr circulation by the _____.
    spleen
  74. Phagocytes move thru capillary walls by squeezing between adj endothelial cells during a process called _____.
    Diapedesis
  75. Perforins are destructive proteins assoc w/ activity of ____.
    T Cells
  76. Compliment activation stimulates inflammation, attracts phagocytes & enhances phagocytes. T or F
    True
  77. Inflammation aids in temp repair @ an inj site, slows spread of pathogens & facilitates permanent repair. T or F
    True
  78. Memory B cells respond to subsequent infections that involve the same antigen. T or F
    True
  79. Which 2 lg collecting vessels are responsible for returning lymph to the veins of the circulatory sys?
    Left and Right thoracic ducts
  80. The right thoracic duct collects lymph fr?
    right side of the body above the diaphram
  81. The left thoracic duct collects lymph fr?
    • the left side of the body above the diaphram
    • the whole body below the diaphram
  82. Compared w/ nonspecific defenses, specific defenses
    Provide protection against threats on an individual basis
  83. T cells and B cells can only be activated by. . .
    Exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site on a cell membrane

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