Pharmacology

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Author:
Jcolon1895
ID:
223112
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2013-08-05 15:07:25
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Pharmacology
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Pharmacology
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  1. Standard drug forms
    • 1. Rectal
    • 2. Oral
    • 3. Injectable
    • 4. Topical
    • 5. Inhalant
  2. Oral drug forms
    Tablet-disc of compressed drug.

    Enteric coated tablet- special coating that resists disintergrating by gastric juices, dissolve in the intestine.

    Capsule- gelatin encapsuled drug.

    Time release capsule- contains drug particles that have various coatings. These coatings dissolve at various times thus deliver a dose over an extended amount of time.

    Lozenge- tablet with flavoring agent. Local use
  3. Oral-Liquid preparations
    Suspension- not evenly dissolved, needs to be shaked well before use.


    Emulsion- contrains oil and fat in the water.

    Elixer- alcohol based.

    Syrup- sweetened flavored liquid.

    Solution- evenly dissolved.
  4. Rectal Drug Form
    Suppository- drug suspended in substances such as cocoa butter that melts at body temp.

    Enema solution- drug suspended in solution.
  5. Injectable Drug Forms
    Solution- drug is suspended in the sterile vehicle.

    Powder- Dry

    IV- IV push, a small amount of drug.

    IV- infusion- drip.

    IM- Intra muscular

    ID- intra dermal. Ex. allergy skin test.

    PPD- purified protein derivative. Ex-Mantaux test.

    Epidural- above the dura matter.

    Intraspinal- subarachnoid space.

    Intracapsular- into the joint space.
  6. Topical Drug Form
    Dermal and mucosal application. Cream and or ointment applied to wet or dry skin.

    Lotion

    Liniment- rubbed on skin

    Dermal patches- skin patch. Ex- Nitorglycerin patch, nicotin, birth control.

    Eye, ear and nasal drops.

    Eye ointment.

    Vaginal exam

    Rectal or vaginal suppositories

    Buccal- Between cheeks and gums and sublingual tablet.
  7. Inhaled Drug Form
    A spray or mist that is inhaled through....

    • 1. Spray bottle
    • 2. Nebulizer
    • 3. Metered dose inhaler
    • 4. Gas- Nitrous oxide
  8. Supplies
    1. Medication cup- paper cup, plastic cup

    2. Metal pill crusher

    3. Ampule- small glass container that holds a single doss of sterile solution for injection.

    4. Vial- glass container sealed at the top by a rubber stopper to enhance sterility of contents. Ex. Solution or powder, Multi dose.
  9. Needles
    3/8, 1 1/2 standard injections

    5"- intraspinal, intra cardiac

    2"- 5" intra articular

    Gauge- the width of the needle

    Syringes

    • Standard hypodermic syringe are 2-3ml, s/c and IM

    • Tuberculin- 10 calibrations, ML, one small line = 0.1ml
    • Insulin
  10. Abbreviations and System Measurments

    a
    ad lib
    amp
    bid
    cap
    ci
    cm
    dc
    dw
    ec
    elix
    er
    gr
    gm
    gtt
    kci
    kvo
    lb
    meq
    meg
    mg
    mi
    noci
    ng
    ns
    otc
    pc
    pca
    qt
    rl
    tab
    tid
    to
    sl
    sr
    stat
    tsp
    tbsp
    vo
    • ac- before min
    • ad lib- as desired
    • amp- am poule
    • bid- twice a day
    • cap- capsule
    • ci- chloride
    • cm- centimeter
    • dc- discontinue
    • dw- distilled water
    • ec- enteric coated
    • elix- elixir
    • er- extended release
    • gr- grain
    • gm- gram
    • gtt- drop
    • kci- potassium chloride
    • kvo- keep vein open
    • lb- pound
    • meq- milli equivalent
    • meg- microorganism
    • mg- milligram
    • mi- milliliter
    • naci- sodium chloride
    • ng- nasogastric
    • ns- normal saline
    • otc- over the counter
    • pc- after meal
    • pca- patient controlled agent
    • qt- quart
    • rl- ringers lactant
    • tab- tablet
    • tid- 3 times a day
    • to- telephone order
    • sl- sublingual
    • sr- sustained release
    • stat- immediately
    • tsp- teaspoon
    • tbsp- tablespoon
    • vo- verbal order
  11. ISMP
    Institute for safe medication practice
  12. Medication order
    • 1. Date
    • 2. Patients name
    • 3. Medication name
    • 4. Amount
    • 5. Dosage
    • 6. Frequency
    • 7. Route
    • 8. Signature of physician
  13. Systems of Measurements
    1. Apothecary- liquid, minimum fluid, ounce fluid, dram, pint, quart, gallon, solid grain, ounce and pound.

    2. Metric- liquid, liter, milliliter, solid, gram and milligram.

    3. Household- tsp, tbsp, and cup
  14. Metric         Apothecary         Household

    1ml            15 minimum        1 tsp
    5ml            1 dram                1 tbsp
    15ml          3 dram                2 tbsp
    30ml          1 oz                    1 cup
    240ml        8oz
    500ml        1 pint
    1000ml      1quart
  15. 1gm= 1000mg= 15gr

    0.5gm= 500mg= 7.5gr

    1lb= 0.453592kg

    1kg= 2.2lbs
    1gm= 1000mg= 15gr

    0.5gm= 500mg= 7.5gr

    1lb= 0.453592kg1kg= 2.2lbs
  16. Dosages
    Pediatric dosage- blood brain barrier

    Geriatric dosage- dosages are reduced due to...

    • 1. lower metabolism
    • 2. poor circulation
    • 3. impairment of kidney, liver, lung function





  17. Responsibilities & Principles of Drug Administration

    Responsibilities- knowledge, judgment and skill.
    1. up to date information about medication

    2. Asses the patient

    3. Skill in delivery of medication accurately with documentation

    4. Patient education

    5. Unfamiliar drugs should never be administered

    6. PDR- Physician Desk Reference, USP/DI (United States Pharmacopia Drug Index) package inserts.

    7. Intervention

    8. Documentation
  18. Medication errors
    Meticulous care in preparation and administration of drugs reduces chances of error.
  19. Medication corrections
    1. Report it immediately to the one in charge so that corrective actions can be taken for the patients welfare.

    2. Patients record should reflect the corrective actions taken for justification in legal proceedings.

    3. An incident report must be completed.
  20. Principles of Administration of Drugs
    1. Cleanliness- wash hands and clean preparation area.

    2. Organization

    3. Preparation area should be well lit
  21. Guidelines to review before giving medication
    • 1. right medication
    • 2. right amount
    • 3. right time
    • 4. right route
    • 5. right technique
    • 6. right patient
    • 7. right documentation
  22. Guidelines to review before giving medication breakdown
    Right medication

    1. never give the drug when the name is obscured.

    2. never leave medication at bedside

    3. expired medication should never be given

    4. never open a unit dose until the patient is prepared to take it.

    Right amount

    1. calculate and have cleared by someone

    Right time

    1. right timing so that the medication is most effective.

    2. makes correct concentration in the blood.

    3. empty stomach so that the food does not wrongly interact with the medications.

    4. Or take meds with meal

    5. Advise at bedtime for drowsiness

    Right route

    1. effect on degree of absorption, speed of drug action and side effects.

    Right technique

    1. Materials should be sterile. Gloves should be worn. Cup should be used to hold pills.

    • Right patient

    • 1. check patient bracelet
    • 2. check medical record number
    • 3. check patients date of birth

    Right documentation

    1. every drug order should be recorded in patients medical record. name of drug, time, administered dose, route, location of injection and signature of person administering meds. PRN take as needed.
  23. Drug standard
    All preparations of the same drug name must have uniform strength, qualities and purity.

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