first aid rapid review P -> W

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first aid rapid review P -> W
2013-07-23 23:22:23
first aid rapid review step

Last section of First Aid rapid review
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  1. Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
    "Pink puffer" (emphysema: centroacinar [smoking], panacinar [α1-antitrypsin deficiency])
  2. Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
    Fanconi's syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)
  3. Positive anterior "drawer sign"
    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
  4. Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis
    Horner's syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)

    * sympathetic nerves innervate superior tarsal muscle that, along with levator palpebrae superioris innervated by CNIII, controls raising upper eyelid
  5. Pupil accommodates but doesn't react
    Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis)
  6. Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infections)
    Guillain-Barre syndrome (autoimmune acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)
  7. Rash on palms and soles
    2° syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  8. Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE
    Job's syndrome (hyper-IgE syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality)
  9. Red "currant jelly" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
    Klebsiella pneumoniae
  10. Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola
    Paget's disease of the breast (represents underlying neoplasm)
  11. Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  12. Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
    von Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)
  13. Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
    Parkinson's disease (nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)
  14. Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
    Pompe's disease (lysosomal glucosidase deficiency)
  15. Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
    Roth's spots (bacterial endocarditis)
  16. Severe jaundice in neonate
    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
  17. Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
    McBurney's sign (appendicitis)
  18. Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
    Fanconi's anemia (genetically inherited; often progresses to AML)

    Autosomal recessive defect in DNA repair proteins
  19. Single palm crease
    Simian crease (Down syndrome)
  20. Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
    Kartagener's syndrome (dynein defect affecting cilia)
  21. Skin hyperpigmentation
    Addison's disease (1° adrenocortical insufficiency of autoimmune or infectious etiology)
  22. Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
    Becker's muscular dystrophy (X-linked, defective dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne's)
  23. Small, irregular red spots on buccal / lingual mucosa with blue-white centers
    Koplik spots (measles)
  24. Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
    Condylomata lata (2° syphilis)
  25. Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
    Bacterial endocarditis
  26. "Strawberry tongue"
    Scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome
  27. Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
    Turner syndrome (XO, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema, widely-spaced nipples)
  28. Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
    Gout / podagra (hyperuricemia)
  29. Swollen gums, mucous bleeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
    Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency: can't hydroxylate proline / lysine for collagen synthesis)
  30. Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
    Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard's nodes], DIP [Heberden's node])
  31. Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
    Aortic valve stenosis
  32. Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
    Sipple's syndrome (MEN 2A)
  33. Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
    Babinski's sign (UMN lesion)
  34. Unilateral facial drooping involving forehead
    Bell's palsy (LMN CN VII palsy)
  35. Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
    Reiter's syndrome (reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27)
  36. Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
    Hemangioma (benign, but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)
  37. Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
    Schwartzman reaction (following second exposure to endotoxin)
  38. Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
    Mallory-Weiss syndrome (alcoholic and bulimic patients)
  39. "Waxy" casts with very low urine flow
    Chronic end-stage renal disease
  40. WBC casts in urine
    Acute pyelonephritis
  41. Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
    Whipple's disease (Tropheryma whippelii)
  42. "Worst headache of my life"
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage