Psychology 1100 - The Brain
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The nervous system consists of two parts. What are they?
- - Central Nervous System (CNS)
- - Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
What is the function of the CNS?
- - consits of the brain and spinal cord
- - receives, processes, interprets, and stores incoming information
- - sends out messages to muscles, glands and organs
What is the function of the PNS?
- - consists of 43 pairs of nerves (31 spinal pairs and 12 brain pairs)
- - handles input and output information from the CNS about what is happening inside and outside the body
What are spinal nerves protected by?
- spinal column
The PNS consists of two parts. What are they?
- - Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
- - Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
What is the function of the ANS?
- controls all the self regulating actions of internal organs and glands
What is the function of the SNS?
- controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscle
The ANS consists of two parts. What are they?
- - Sympathetic Nervous System
- - Parasympathetic Nervous System
What is the function of the Sympathetic Nervous System?
- responsible for arousal "fight or flight"
What is the function of the Parasympathetic Nervous System?
- responsible for calming the body
What are the three types of neurons?
- - sensory neurons
- - motor neurons
- - interneurons
What is the function of sensory neurons?
- receives messages from outside nervous system and carries them to the CNS
What is the function of motor neurons?
- carries messages out from the CNS
What is the function of interneurons?
- receives messages from other neurons, is between the sensory and motor neurons
Describe the Hindbrain.
- - brain stem and the cerebellum
- - coordinates the body
Describe the Midbrain.
- - limbic system
- - manages emotions and connects thought to body
Describe the Forebrain.
- - cortex
- - integrates information
Describe the Cerebral Cortex.
- - outer covering of the two hemispheres
- - perception, emotion, movement and thought
Describe the Occipital Lobe.
- - visual information
- - visual cortex
Describe the Parietal Lobe.
- - information about touch
- - sensory cortex
Describe the Temporal Lobe.
- - hearing language
- - auditory cortex
Describe the Frontal Lobe.
- - planning, judgment, memory, reasoning, abstract thinking and movement
- - motor cortex
What is the Broca's Area and where is it located?
- - is responsible for speech production
- - is located in the Frontal Lobe
What is the Wernicke's Area and where is it located?
- - is responsible for language comprehension
- - is located in the Temporal Lobe
What is the Motor Cortex and where is it located?
- - is responsible for output from the brain
- - is located in the Frontal Lobe
What is the Sensory Cortex and where is it located?
- - is responsible for input to the brain
- - is located in the Parietal Lobe
What are the Parietal Lobe Association areas?
- - managing sensory input
- - spatial and mathematical reasoning
- - monitoring sensation of movement
What are the Temporal Lobe Association areas?
- - recognizing specific faces
- - sound input, understanding spoken words
Describe the Medulla.
- - first structure after the spinal cord
- - responsible for automatic functions like heart rate and breathing
What is the function of the Pons?
- - neurons responsible for sleep and dreaming
- - motor neurons responsible for controlling the muscles and glands in the face and neck
Where is the function of the RAS and where is it located?
- - arouses the cortex and screens incoming information
- - extends from brain stem
What is the function of the Thalamus?
- - sensory input (except smell) is routed through the Thalamus on the way to the cortex
- - sends information from the cortex to the medulla and cerebellum
What is the function of the Cerebellum?
- coordinates voluntary movements, enables non verbal learning and memory
What is the function of the Basal Ganglia?
- - receives information from the cerebral cortex
- - sends output to the motor cortex
- - voluntary control of posture and movement
What three parts make up the Limbic System?
- - Amygdala
- - Hippocampus
- - Hypothalamus
What is the function of the Amygdala?
- processes emotions especially fear and aggresion
What are the functions of the Hippocampus?
- - processes conscious, episodic memories
- - works with the Amygdala to form emotionally charged memories
What are the functions of the Hypothalamus?
- - regulates body temperature
- - houses reward center
- - part of it uses light cues to regulate sleep cycle
- - controls maintenance functions like eating and drinking
What does the Corpus Callosum do?
- hold the two hemispheres together
Define experience-expectant plasticity in infants.
- requires basic common experiences to develop normally such as being loved and nurtured
What is experience-dependent plasticity in infants?
- happens to some infants but not all such as hearing the same language over and over
What are the functions of the left hemisphere?
- - thoughts and logic
- - details "tree"
- - language, words and definitions
- - linear and literal
- - calculations
- - pieces and details
What are the functions of the right hemisphere?
- - feelings and intuition
- - big picture "forest"
- - language, tone and context
- - inferences and associations
- - perception
- - wholes, including ones self
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