Integumentary System

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Integumentary System
2013-06-10 03:35:27

integ and pharm
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  1. Sulfaslazine

    Trade Name: Azulfidine & Azulfidine En-Tubs
    UTI, Acute otitis media, hemophellius influenzae, menlgoccocal menengitis

    AR- vomiting, headache, diarrhea, chills, fever, anorexia, crystalluria, stomitis, urticaria, TEN, SJS, and hemotologic changes
  2. Topical Sulfonomides
    Mafenide- 2nd-3rd degree burns AR- pain, burning, rash, itching, and facial edema

    Silvadene- 2nd-3rd degree burns AR-leukopenia, skin necrosis, skin discoloration, burning
  3. Antifungal anidulafungen Eraxis
    Uses-abdominal and esophogeal candidiasis

    AR- headache, rash, nausea, and vomiting
  4. Urinary Antinfective Combos

    Trimethoprim TMP
    Sulfamethoxazole SMZ
    Trade Name: Bactrim
                       Bactrim DS
                       Septra DS
    Uses- Acute bacterial UTI, Acute Otitis media, and travelers diarrhea related to escherichia coli.

    AR-headache, GI disturbances, Allergic Skin reaction, Hemotologic changes, SJS, anorexia, Glossitis
  5. Sulfadiazine Uses and Adverse Reactions
    Uses-UTI, otitis media, hemophilus influenzae, meninicoccal meningitis, rheumatic fever

    AR- vomiting, headache, diarrhea, chills, fever, anorexia, crystalluria, stomitis
  6. Sulfonamides  hypersensitivity
    Urticaria, pruritis, generalized skin eruptions

    • Severe Reactions
    • Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and SJS
  7. Sulfonamides--Adverse Reactions
    anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomatitis, chills, fever, crystalluria, photosensitivity
  8. Sulfonamides--Uses
    UTI, Acute otitis media, and Ulcerative Colitis

    • Mafenyde(sulfanylon)
    • Silver Sulfadiazine (silvadine)

    Topical ointments are used to treat 2nd-3rd degree burns
  9. Antifungals

    Amphotercin B
    Uses- Systemic fungal infections, cryptococcal meningitis, in patients with HIV

    AR- headache, hypertension, fever, shaking, chills, malaise, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abnormal renal function, joint and muscle pain.
  10. semisynthetic penicillinase-resistant narrow spectrum

    Uses are same as penicillan G
    Adverse Reactions are same as penicillin G
    • Dicloxacillin
    • nafcillin
    • oxacillin
    • amoxicillan
    • ampicillan
    • beta-lactamase inhibitor---amoxicillan and clavulanate
    • ampicillin &sulbactum
    • pipercillan & tazobactum
    • ticarcillan & clavulanate
  11. Natural Penicillin--Narrow spectrum

    Penicillin G Phizerpen
                 G Benzathine
                 G procaine
    Penicillin V veetids

    AR-Glossitis, stomatitis, Gastritis, Furry tongue, Nausea, Vomit, Diarrhea, Rash, Fever, Pain at inj. site, hematopelitic changes
    • Penicillan G Phizerpen- infections due to suseptible microorganisms- Menengitis and Septicemia
    • Penicillin G Benzathine- Syphillis, prophylaxis, Rheumatic Fever, Chorea
    • Peniciilan G Procaine- moderate to severe infections due to suseptible organisms
    • Penicillin V veetids- same
  12. Cool Tar Products
    • Estar Gel, Psori Gel,
    • Ezcema,   Psoriasis,
  13. Pediculosis   Parasite Disorder
    Lice infection. 3 types   Body lice, Head Lice, and Pubic Lice

    Kwell, RID, cool compresses and corticosteroids
  14. Acne Vulgaris

    Inflammatory disorder
    Clearasil, Vitamin A, Erythramycin, Sulfur Zinc Lotion, Tetracycline, Accutaine-depression

    • Liver function tests
    • Destructive effect on fetus
  15. Tinea Capitus


    Fungal disorder
    • betenafine (mentax)  2-6 weeks
    • Ringworm of the scalp
    • hair turns blue-green under woods light

    • Oral- grisofluven
    • Antifungal Soaps & Shampoos
    • Tinactin, Miconazole (lotramin), monistat, Desenex
  16. Herpes Zoster-- Shingles
    • Acyclovir
    • Kenalog lotion
    • Corticosteroids
  17. Psoriasis

    Inflammatory Disorder

    Cyclosporine, retinoid (acitretin), Infliximab (remicade) Topical Steroids, Keratolytic agents in occlusive wet dressing, Tar prep & salicylic Acid, betamethasone, valerate, methoxsalan, Methotrexate, vit D and antimetabolites
  18. Pityriasis Rosea

    Viral disorder

    meds & treatment
    • hydrocortisone  2-3 X's a day
    • Ultraviolet light X 30 min
  19. Impetigo contagiosa

    bacterial disorder

    cause & meds
    caused by- aureus step

    erythromyacin, dicloxacillin, cephalasporin, topical- myprocin (bractoban) retapamulin (atabax) Antiseptic Soap
  20. Extended Spectrum Penicillins
    carbenicillinidenyl- UTI caused by E coli Proteus- Entrobacter

    • Piperacillin-Same as penicillin G
    • Ticarcillin- Same as penicillin G
  21. Diagnostic Tests for Lupus Erythematosus
    • C-reactive biopsy (CRP)
    • Coombs Test
    • LE cell prep
    • Urinalysis
    • Chest Radiographic Study
    • DNA Antibody
    • Anti- SM antibody
    • Complement
    • CBC
    • Erytherocyte Sedimentation Rate
    • Coagulation Profile
    • Rheumatoid Factor
    • Rapid Plasma Region
    • Skin and Renal Biopsy
  22. Uticaria
    Hives, Red Wheals, caused by histamines
  23. Anaphylactic Shock
    A severe form of hypersensitivity occurs most after parenteral administration but can occur after oral. S/S include severe hypertension, Loss of conciousness, and acute respiratory distress. It can be fatal
  24. Cinchonism
    a group of symptoms associated with quinine administration

    SYM- tinnitis (ringing of the ears), dizziness, headache, GI disturbance, Visual disturbance, Perepheral Neuropathy, Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity
  25. Sulfadiazine


    Uses- UTI, Cardoriod, Acute Otitis Media, Hemophilis Influenzae, Menegococcal meningitis, Rheumatic fever

    AR- vomiting, headache, diarrhea, chills, fever anorexia, crystalluria, SJS, hemotologic changes
  26. Cephalasporin Uses
    • Respiratory Infection
    • Ear Infection
    • Bone/Joint Infection
    • Genitourinary Tract
    • may also be used as a operative prophylaxis
  27. Antifungal Drug Adverse Reactions
    Headache, Rash, Anorexia, malaise, Abdominal, Joint, Muscle Pain, Nausea, Vomiting, and Diarrhea
  28. Topical Antifungals
    • Fungizone
    • Mentax
    • Loprox
    • Lotrimin
    • Spectazole
    • Halotex,
    • Micatin
    • Monistat
    • Naftin
    • Oxistat
    • Tinactin
  29. Third Generation Cephalasporins

    Omnicet       Fortaz
    Specracef     Cedax
    Cefobid        Rocephin
    Claforan       Vantin
    AR-nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypersensitivity reactions, nephrotoxicity, headache, hematologic reactions
  30. Fourth Generation Cephalasporin

    AR- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypersensitivity, superinfection, nephrotoxicity, headache, SJS, pseudomembranous colitis
  31. Second Reaction Cephalasporins

    Cafaclor      Cefotetan
    Cefoxitin     Cefprozil
    AR- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypersensitivity reactions, nephrotoxicity, headache, and hematologic reactions
  32. First Generation Cephalosporins

    Cefadroxil       Cefazolin
    Uses- infections due to suseptible microorganisms

    AR- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypersensitivity reaction, nephrotoxicity, headache, SJS, pseudomembraneous colitis
  33. Extended Spectrum Penicillins
    • Carbenicullis--Geocillin
    • Piperacillin
    • Ticarcillin
  34. Pruritus
  35. Papules
    small, raised, solid skin lesions less than 1 cm in diameter
  36. Macules
    samll flat blemishes that are flush with the skin surfaces
  37. Keloids
    an overgrowth of collagenous scar tissue at the site of a wound of the skin
  38. Pustulant Vesicles
    small circumscribed elevations of the skin that contain pus
  39. Rules of Nines
    • Determines the TBSA burned 
    • Head p/a 9%
    • Arms p/a 9%
    • Legs p/a 18%
    • Chest/Back p/a 18%
    • Perineum of males 1%
  40. Verruca
    a benign, biral, warty skin lesion with a rough papillomatous (nipplelike) growth occuring in many forms
  41. Vesicle
    circumscribed, elevation of the skin filled with serous fluid smaller than 0.5 cm
  42. agonist-antagonist
    has properties of both agonist and antagonist. antagonist will fight for a receptor site with a agonist and cause no response for the receptor
  43. Penicillin/ beta-lactamase inhibitor combos
    • amoxicillin-clavulanate
    • piperacillin-tazobactam
    • ticarcillin-clavulanate
  44. Thermoregulation
    the mechanism whereby the body balances heat production and heat loss
  45. Mycotic Infection
    Yeast or Moldlike infection. can be suferficial or deep in the body sites like lungs, brain, or GI tract
  46. Antagonist
    A substance that counter acts the action of something else
  47. Adjuvant
    Extra Helping

    Ex: Fentanyl

    added to analgesic to potentiate pain releiving affect
  48. Thrush
    a yeast infection of the oral cavity
  49. Agonist
    drugs that bind well to receptors

    some opioid analgesics
  50. Aplastic Anemia
    anemai due to deficient red blood cell production in the bone marrow
  51. Antibacterial
    Active against bacteria

    Ex: sulfomides
  52. Crystalluria
    Crystals in the urine

    adverse reaction of sulfanomides
  53. bacteriostatic
    ability to inhibit the activity of folic acid in bacterial cell metabolism
  54. Steven Johnson Syndrome
    allergic reaction to sulfa causes widespread sloughing of the skin and mucous membrane can be fatal and can affect internal organs
  55. Stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth
  56. Beta-lactum Ring
    the drug attaches to a cell a portion of the drug molecule breaks the cell wall and the cell dies. *certain bacteria are able to produce alphalactamases which destroy the batalactam ring
  57. Bacteriacidal
    Able to kill bacterial cells
  58. Bacterial Resistance
    When a bacteria develops a resistance to a certain penicillin. Often has occurred with natural penicillins
  59. Cross Allergencity
    Allergy to drugs in the same related groups
  60. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureas MRSA
    A type of bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics, methicillin, oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin
  61. S/S of Hypersensitivity to Penicillin
    Skin rash, Uticaria, Sneezing, Wheezing, Pruritis, Bronchospasm, Laryngospasm, Angioedema, Hypotensio can progress to shock, chills, fever, edema, joint pain, and malaise
  62. Physical Dependance
    Long-term use of benzodiapines can result in your body having withdrawals when not taken
  63. Wheals
    round elevation of the skin. white in the center red periphery
  64. Partial Agonist
    Binds to the receptor but response is limited
  65. Anxiety
    feelings of apprehension, worry, or uneasiness. may or not be based in reality. Ranges from "jitter" to acute panic.
  66. Anxiolytics
    Drugs used to treat anxiety
  67. Psychological Dependance
    Thought that you need something to function or live
  68. Miosis
    • pinpoint pupils
    • * a response from opiod including respiratory depression and GI motility (constipation)
  69. Cachetic
    malnourished in general poor health
  70. Patient- Controlled Analgesia
    allows postsurgical patient and patients on hospice to administer their own analgesics via IV pump
  71. Disulfiram-Like Reaction
    may occur if alcohol is consumed within 72 hours, it includes s/s like with use of antabuse (a drug used to treat alcoholism) flushing, throbbing in head and neck, respiratory difficulty, vomiting, sweating, chest pain, and hypotension
  72. Parasite
    an organism that lives in or on a host without contributing to survival or well-being of the host.
  73. Exfoliative Dermatitis

    Inflammatory Disorder
    infestation of certain heavy metals, arsenic, or mercury. antibiotics, aspirin, iodine, and gold

    Fever, Skin sloughs, Edmatous, Erythematous

    Calamine lotion, Therapeutic bath with colloid solution
  74. Dermatitis Venenata

    Inflammatory Disorder
    Contact with certain plants

    lab exam for Serum Ig

    • eosinophilia is ordered
    • corticosteroid
    • calamine lotion
    • colloid solution
    • cool open wet dressings
  75. Scabies

    Parastic Disorder
    Caused by female itchmite

    severe pruritis  and 2ndary infection

    • cromaitone (eurax)
    • sulfur/ petroleum solution
  76. Dermatits Medicamentosa
    Patients given a medication they are hypersensitive too. Common are penicillin, codeine, and iron
  77. Malaise
    general tiredness
  78. Nephrotoxicity
    damage to kidney by a toxic substance
  79. Adverse Reactions to Cephalasporins
    Headache, Dizziness, Malaise, heartburn, Fever, Nephrotoxicity, may include: uticaria, rashes, SJS, and hepatic and renal dysfunction
  80. Otitis Media
    Ear Infection

    * Cephalasporins
  81. Perioperative Period
    you may use cephalasporin during this period as a prophylaxis for prevention of infection
  82. Thrombophlebitis
    inflammation of a vein with a clot formation
  83. Candidiasis
    Yeast infection such as those caused by candita albicans. It effects women in the vulvovaginal area and immunocompromised people with chronic conditions in the perineum or orally: infection in the mouth is called thrush
  84. Leukopenia
    decrease in the number of white blood cells
  85. Life Cycle of Malarial Parasite
    Mosquito injects sporozoites, sporozoites migrate to the liver and becomes merozoites, merozoits are released and invade red blood cells where it becomes a trophozoite causing creatnin RBClysis. The trophozoites multipies producing new merozoites, RBC ruptures, some merozoites become gamtocytes where female mosquitos pick it up
  86. Fungicidal
    able to destroy fungi
  87. Fungistatic
    are able to slow or retard multiplication of fungi
  88. Fungus
    A single celled colorless plant that lacks chlorophyll.

    fungi that cause disease in humans that maybe yeast-like or mold-like resulting in fungal or mycotic infections
  89. Helminthiasis
    invasion of the body by parasitic worms
  90. Anthemintic Drugs
    Kills Parasites

    Albenezole-Pork tapeworm, treat liver, lungs, peritoneumdisease from drug tapeworm

    Mebendazole (vermox) whipworm, pinworm, roundworm, american hook, pyrantel- roundworm, pinworm
  91. Over- The- Counter
    without a prescription
  92. Pruritis
  93. Anorexia
    loss of appetite
  94. Opiod Naive
    Patient who does not use opiods or being given it for acute pain or after surgical procedures
  95. Autograft
    Surgical Transplantation of any tissue from one part of the body to another location on the same patient
  96. Contracture
    shortening or tension of muscles that affect extension
  97. Alopecia
    The loss of hair. The cause can be aging, drugs such as antineoplastics (cancer drugs), anxiety, or disease processes
  98. Curling Ulcer
    A duodermal ulcer that develops after 8-14 days after severe burns on the body. First sign is usually vomiting of bright red blood
  99. Debridement
    removal of damaged tissue and cellular debris from a wound or burn to prevent infection and promote healing
  100. Eschar
    a black leathery crust (ie: slough) that the body forms over burned tissue; it can harbor microorganisms and causes infection
  101. Excoriation
    Injury to the surface layer of the skin caused by scratching or abrasion
  102. Exudate
    fluid, cells, or other substances that have been slowly exuded or discharges from cells or blood vessels through small breaks in cell membranes
  103. Heterograft (xenograft)
    Tissue from another species such as a pig or cow, used as a temporary skin graft
  104. Homograft (allograft)
    Transfer of tissues between 2 genetically dissimilar individuals
  105. Nevi (mole)
    A pigmented, congenital skin blemish that is usually benign but may become cancerous
  106. Supperation
    Production of purulent material
  107. Urticaria
    Refers to presence of wheals or hives in allergic reaction to food, drugs, insect bites, inhalants, emotional stress, or exposrure to heat or cold
  108. Superinfection
    are seen with administration of oral penicillins and occur in the bowel

    They include: diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, rectal bleeding, fever, abdominal cramping
  109. Onychomycosis
    Nail Fungus
  110. Tinea Corporis
    Ringworm of the body

    *Miconazole, Ketoconazol, Ciclopirox
  111. Tinea Curis
    jock itch
  112. Tinea Pedis
    Athlete's Feet
  113. Kerotolytic
    a drug that removes excess growth of the epidermis in disorders such as: warts, calluses, corns, seborrhic karatosis

    *Salacylic Acid - Nasoprocol
  114. Purulent Exudates
    pus-containing fluid
  115. Proteolysis
    enzymes aiding in the removal of dead soft tissue by hastening the reduction of proteins in to simpler substances
  116. Necrotic
    Dead tissue

    topical enzymes are used to help remove it
  117. Superinfection
    An overgrowth of bacterial or fungal organisms not affected by an antibiotic being administered
  118. Hypersensitivity
    Allergic Reaction to a drug
  119. Germicide
    • A drug that kills bacteria
    • Hibiclens
    • Phishex
    • Acudine Betadine
    • Clearasil
  120. Bacteriostatic
    inhibits bacterial growth
  121. Bactericidal
    lethal to bacteria
  122. Antiseptic
    • a drug that stops or slows the growth of microorganisms such as:
    • Clorohexidine-hibiclens
    • Hexaclophine-phisohes
    • Providone Iodine-accudine-betadine
    • Sodium Hypoclorite- dakins
    • Triclosan-clearisil
  123. Antipsoriatic
    used in treatment of psoriasis

    • Gen           Trade
    • anthralin=anthraderm drithrocreme
    •                miconal (daily)
    • Caleipotriene= Devonex (bid)

    Selenium sulfide: head and shoulders shampoo
  124. Culture and Sensitivity
    A test used to identify a bacterial strain and what sort of antibiotic will kill it
  125. Glossitis
    an adverse reaction to penicillin that causes inflammation of the tongue
  126. Pathogens
    disease-causing microrganisms
  127. Penicillins
    • 4 types of penicillins are
    • natural
    • penicillinase-resistant
    • aminopenicillin
    • extended spectrum
  128. penicillinase
    an enzyme that inactivated penicillin
  129. Phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein. Adverse reaction to penicillin given by IV
  130. Prophylaxis
    prevention, sometimes given in case of infection to prevent its occurance
  131. psuedomembranous colitis
    • a superinfection  of the GI tract can include:
    • diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramping.
    • may occur 4-9 days after treatment as long as 6 weeks after drug is discontinued
  132. Cephalasporins
    • Structurally related to penicillin
    • they are divided into 4 generations
    • 1st- more useful against gram-positive
    • 2nd
    • 3rd
    • 4th-more useful against gram-negative and has a broader spectrum and longer duration of resistance to beta-lactamose (beta-lactum ring) destroyers
  133. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
    lesions on skin and mucous membranes may be fatal whenit involves internal organs
  134. Karatin
    a tough protein is deposited within the cell. It hardens and flattens the cell as they move toward the surface, they also aide in the skins water resistance.
  135. Melanin
    A skin darkening pigment secreted by melanocytes. Melanin stains surrounding cells making your skin darker
  136. Radiation
    Heat lost from a warm object (the body) to a cooler air surrounding the warm object.
  137. Subaceous Glands
    are asociated with hair follicles and are found in all areas with hair. They secrete sebum. In babies they secrete Vernix Caseosa
  138. Stratum Corneum
    The surface layer of the epidermis composed of 30 layers of keratinized cells
  139. Stratum Germinativum
    lies on top of the dermis and thus has access to the rich supply of blood. The cells of this layer are continuously dividing, producing millions of cells per day
  140. subcutaneous layer
    is not considered part of the skin. it lies under the skin and is therefore called subcutaneous or the hypodermis is mainly composed of loose connective and adipose tissue. 2 Main Roles- insulate the body and anchors the skin to the underlying structures
  141. Sudoriferous Glands
    They are sweat glands located in the dermis
  142. Angioedema
    localized wheals or swelling in subcutaneous tissues or mucous membranes which may be due to an allergic response also called angionecrotic edema
  143. Cross-Sensitivity
    when a person is allergic to one medication. They will be allergic to all medications in that class
  144. Apocrine Gland
    found in hair follicles of axillary and genital areas. Apocrine glands respond to emotional stress and become active when a person is frightened, upset, in pain or sexually excited
  145. Ceruminous glands
    found in the external auditory canal of the ear. They excrete cerumen (earwax)
  146. Conduction
    is the loss of heat form a warmer body to a cooler object in contact with a warm body.

    Ex: a person (warm body) sitting on a block of ice (cool object)
  147. Convection
    the loss of heat by air current moving over the surface of the skin

    Ex: a fan moves over the surface of the body
  148. Cutaneous Membrane
    Skin: it is considered the largest organ of the body
  149. Dermis
    inner layer of the skin and is anchored to the subcutaneous layer
  150. Eccrine Glands
    more numerous and widely distributed of sweat glands. they are located throughout the body especially in the forehead, neck, back, upper lip, palms, and soles of feet
  151. Epidermis
    outer layer of skin composed of stratified squamous epithelium. It is avascular and has no blood supply of its own
  152. Evaporation
    when a liquid becomes a gas
  153. integument
    skin and is considered the largest organ in the body
  154. Thrombocytopenia
    decrease in the number of platelets
  155. Hypersensitivity
    • Allergic reaction to a drug
    • may include;
    • pruritis
    • uticaria
    • toxic epidermal necrolysis
    • Stevens Johnson Syndrome
  156. Eczema- Drugs

    Atopic Dermatitis

    Inflammatory Disorder
    • Topical Steroids
    • Eucerin
    • Alphakeri
    • lubriderm
    • curel
    • cool tar products
    • psorigel
    • estargel
  157. Tinea pedis

    Fungal disorder
    Athletes foot

    warm soaks using burrows solution

    tilifinate, miconozole, monistat, desenex, bulenafine
  158. Cellulitis

    Bacterial Disorder
    Cause: A- streptococci

    Stephylococcus, Haemophilus Influenzae Type B


    Complications: menengitis, lymphargitis
  159. Eczema

    Atopic Dermatitis

    Inflammatory Disorder
    Topical steroids releive discomfort, lotionseucerin, alphakeri, lubriderm or curel. 3-4 X's a day when lesions start to heal. Cool Tar products. Associated with allergies to chocolate products, eggs, wheat & OJ. allergens causes histamine to be released & an antigen antibody reaction occurs. Papular & vesicular lesions appear surrounded by erythema. discharge yellow, tenacious exudate, encrusted. Heredity is prominent factor. Hydration to skin, warm water 15-20 minutes an occlusive ointment, petroleum jelly, corticosteriod ointment and vegetable shortening